AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF BASIC AND APPLIED SCIENCES (AJBAS)

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ISSN: 1991-8178 (print)
ISSN: 2309-8414 (online)

Published Monthly (January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November and December)

Journal Contact Mailing Address
E-mail: Ajbaseditor@gmail.com

Principal Contact
E-mail: Ajbaseditor@gmail.com

Support Contact
E-mail: ajbaseditor@ajbasweb.com

Websites
http://www.ajbasweb.com

Journals related to AJBAS and Free Journal
Research Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences
Global Journal of Plant Ecophysiology
Global Journal of Medicinal Plant Research
Global Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management


To see more Journals visit our Page:
http://www.aensiweb.com/journals.html

AJBAS - Author Guidelines for Article Submission

Contents
1. Aim and Scope of the Journal
2. Pre-submission Checklist
2.1 Publication ethics
2.2 Plagiarism policy
2.3 Policies on research conducted using human subjects
2.4 Instructions for Cover letter
2.5 Instructions for ‘Suggestions for List of potential reviewers’
2.6 Permissions
3. Article types
3.1 Original research paper
3.2 Review article
3.3 Short communication
3.4 Letters
3.5 Opinion articles
3.6 Case studies
3.7 Book reviews
3.8 Conceptual paper
3.9 Technical paper
4. Universal readability
5. Formatting a submission
5.1 Title, Abstract, Keywords and Author names, Affiliation with Correspondence
5.2 Body text
5.2.1 Abbreviations, Acronyms, Units, Equations and Formula
5.2.2 Figures and Tables
5.2.3 Footnotes
5.2.4 Acknowledgement
5.2.5 Funding information
5.2.6 Author contribution
5.2.7 Conflict of Interest
5.2.8 Author biography
5.3 References (in-text and in list)
5.4 Appendix
5.5 Supplementary material
5.6 Submission and Review process
5.7 Post submission
6. Copyright transfer, archiving policy and licensing agreement
7. Author services such as image designing and translation services

1. Aim and Scope of the Journal
AJBAS (Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences) is a multidisciplinary journalthat publishes high quality research publications in the areas of Agriculture, Biological, Information, Health & Life Sciences, Zoology, Humanity, Social and Applied Sciences etc. and published by American-Eurasian Network for Scientific Information, Jordan with ISSN: 1991-8178. Being an academic-research publisher of peer-reviewed journals across the world, AJBAS is committed to publish excellent, original, double-blind peer-reviewed research articles of all types in various subjects. Along with AJBAS, AENSI Publishing Corporation publishes a number of journals to nurture the community and recognize the budding talents in the scientific world.

2. Pre-submission Checklist
Authors are advised to make use of this checklist before submitting your articles to AJBAS which will ensure fast processing and easy proceedings.
• Author(s) complete information such as Name, Email ID (for the correspondence), Affiliation with Country
• Abstract/Summary with keywords
• Figures, Tables are properly captioned
• Uploading an Microsoft Word 2007 (or more) version file with supporting files (if any
• Cover letter duly filled with potential reviewer form (if applicable)
• Spell checked and formatted/referenced as per the guidelines
• Acknowledgements, conflict of interest, Funding information are filled (if applicable)
• Permissions were obtained for using copyrighted materials

2.1 Publication ethics
AJBAS is committed to ensure that there is no impact on influence on editorial decisions looking at the advertising, reprint and other commercial revenues. We are truly committed to publish high quality research articles and according to us payment should not be an obstacle for the good quality research work for getting published. AJBAS and its group of publications are working closely with other publishers and industry associations in order to set standards for best practices on ethical matters, errors and retractions--and are prepared to provide specialized legal review and counsel if necessary. AJBAS and its group of journals ensure open, transparent publications with its business model that is benefitted by the society without harming the business ethics. We are against any form of illegal activities such as, but not confined to publishing illegal notes, encouraging terrorism of any types, discriminative content, plagiarism, double-publishing, biased reviews, publishing papers that affects the sentiments of people, religion, culture, country which could possible bring conflicts between the two communities etc., AJBAS and our group of journals are committed to abide by the laws set forth in the country where it is being published.

2.2 Plagiarism policy
AJBAS is committed to publish quality research articles and strictly exhibit no-tolerance to plagiarism. Plagiarism is nothing but the practice of taking someone else's work or ideas and passing them off as one's own. AJBAS detects plagiarism in all the submissions irrespective of its type with anti-plagiarism software and those research articles found with plagiarism will be immediately rejected and the author(s) are blacklisted so that they are not allowed to publish in AJBAS or any of its group of journals thereafter. So, authors are requested to check plagiarism well in advance prior to submission to AJBAS. Those who are unaware about the plagiarism checking software, please check www.turnitin.com or www.ithenticate.com

2.3 Policies on research conducted using human subjects
Human research involves significant risks and AJBAS is careful about publishing research articles that involves Human research activities. Though the best care is taken during the research, there are instances that may create mishaps which leads to man-made disasters.For all the research submissions, authors must (if in case, vulnerable people such as pregnant women or children are involved) and get it approved by the Institutional Review Board of the respective institutions and/or their equivalent authorities and/or the government institutions. Authors must get informed consent from the human participants explaining the study’s objective and possible outcome. While submitting research articles for consideration, authors must declare that their study comply with the ethical considerations put forth by International forums and institutions. AJBAS and its group of journals do not hold any responsibility or undergo any kind of legal proceedings in case if the research publications invited any such activity.

2.4 Instructions for Cover letter
With every submission to AJBAS, authors are required to submit a cover letter(Template Enclosed) that include the following aspects
• Type of research article
• Total word count excluding tables and figures
• No-plagiarism assurance
• Information on acknowledgements, conflicts of interest, and funding sources
• Novelty (or) Uniqueness of the research in 150-175 words
• How your submission aligns with AJBAS Aims &Scope
• Non-submission / consideration inother journals
• Correspondence details
If author(s) do not enclose a covering letter mentioning all the above, the research articles or any such submissions would be returned and asked to resubmit with the required information. The cover letter should not
• Cite any information that discriminate journal, reviewers, scientists, researchers from their own/any other country
• Contain possible errors or mismatching information with that of your submission
• Ask the Editor-in-Chief to give opinion on suitability of your manuscript
• Request AJBAS to urge the review process and acceptance
• Raise doubts on whether your manuscript meets the journal theme requirements
• Be contain only your abstract as the theme area

2.5 Instructions for ‘Suggestions for List of potential reviewers’
Authors are encouraged to submit a list of potential reviewers(Template Enclosed)when you submit your manuscript to be published in AJBAS. Here is the suggestions when you submit the list of potential reviewers
• Reviewers must hold doctorate degree from an Higher education institution recognized by the concerned country’s Ministry of Education or equivalent authority
• The reviewers must be a Subject Matter Expert in the same area under which your research falls. In case of interdisciplinary research articles, at least two Subject Matter Experts from the study areas must be suggested
• Author can suggest only one reviewer from their own country who do not belong to author’s institution and should not be directly/indirectly associated with the author(s)
• Your suggestion to AJBAS does not bind the Editor-in-Chief any way. Those who are suggested by authors may or may not be considered by the editor-in-chief to review your article.
• You should not have worked with the suggested potential reviewers in the past three years
• The suggested reviewers should have not already reviewed or otherwise contributed to your manuscript in any form
• The potential reviewers should not have conflicts in terms of funding, research findings, discriminative or any such conflicts for that matter.

2.6 Permissions
The authors are required to obtain Permission for using the copyrighted material(or the materials which were published elsewhere) from any sources (hard copy or soft copy, in full use or partial use or modified usage). The authors are advised to be aware of the non-grant of electronic rights by some publishers for which AJBAS will not be able to take any costs that may have incurred due to permissions. Authors are required to completely analyze before using such materials, instead of which they are suggested to use free and non-copyrighted sources

3. Article types
3.1 Original research paper
Research papers that justify research questions and achieve the objectives through empirical information that represent a substantial advance in understanding an important problem and have immediate and far-reaching implications. A usual research paper does not exceed 2,500-3,000 words excluding references, tables, and legends to figures and structured usually (with few exceptions and to be used only as a reference and not as it is) as Introduction, Materials and Methods or Methodology, Literature review, Results or Statistical analysis, Discussion, Conclusion, Limitations and Recommendations. Other than the above, the text may have additional subheadings that should not affect the flow.Abstract, Reference, Bibliography are discussed under the author guidelines.
Introduction: With adequate background about your research work, outline the issue being addressed and specify the objectives in a precise and yet informative manner. Too heavy statistical comparisons are suggested to be avoided. If you are developing your paper from your thesis/dissertation, do not use the chapterization as it is.
Literature review: A brief literature review with important studies which you think that are most relevant to the theme is to be cited here. Avoid summarizing the articlesand keep it to the minimum.
Materials or Methods/Methodology: Sufficient details should be provided here to aid the future researchers conduct research in this area. Some standard methods which are globally known/accepted can be mentioned in few words except if have not made any changes. Each raw material/design/method/source/component to be detailed as much as possible. Do not mention the usual practices done during investigation.
Results or Statistical analysis: Results should be very concise and clear with informative tables. No repetitive tables, figures are allowed. Authors are required to limit the number of tables/figures to 5-7 in the entire article (the tables/figures will be calculated as ‘Single item’).
Discussion: The section should explain how the current study results are unique and comparatively better/naive than the previous studies. No repetition of results in the discussion section. Discussion should be comprehensive, precise and show theimprovements. Do not cite lot of studies and avoid discussing published literature.
Conclusion: Present a short form of the study in the conclusion which should not be repetitive of discussion. This may either be a standalone section or combined as Discussion and conclusion Limitations and Recommendations: Based on the findings and limitations, authors need to list out the recommendations to the future researchers. The limitations should be, not confined to, methodological aspects and not based on personal experiences of the author(s) while conducting the research.

3.2 Review article
Review articles are written to summarize the current/ongoing and the literature studies of a particular topic pertaining to the research interests which would not usually contain the new facts or analysed results. Review articles should be between 2,500-3,500 words that encompass the information about the current investigations, government policies and international environment about the specific topic.Reviews can be of any type such as systematic review, clinical reviews (for which the format would be different). General review format should contain, but not limited to, Introduction, Methodology, Foundation, Synthesis with Concepts, Analysis of the studies, General critique followed by conclusion. The Appendices and Bibliography are to be listed as per the author guidelines.

3.3 Short communication
Short communications are nothing but concise, independent report to represent a significant contribution with not more than 2500 words and must be a completed work since it is considered as an alternative format to describe smaller pieces of work rather than preliminary findings.

3.4 Letters
Letters are written in the form of short reports focusing an important finding of a research article that kindles the interest among the audience outside the relevant subject. Though letters are not original reports of its own kind, it still provide new insights through putting the main findings into general context. The letters are written with tables and figures within 1,000 words (excluding references, tables, figures). Usually the letters end with the discussion that should be as succinct as possible and ensure not to repeat the summary/introduction material and only convey the general relevance in a brief manner.

3.5 Opinion articles
Current Opinion articles or opinion articles are usually developed by the authors in a systematic, and integrative manner which provides unique updates on the expanding theme areas based on their personal views which invites healthy debates on a particular research-related topic. Being an updated topic, the opinions and evaluations on most interesting articles in a specific theme/area is published in this which acts as a valuable resource to researchers across the globe. The authors are recommended to do an in-depth analysis before submitting an opinion article since mere outlining an issue will not be considered for publication in AJBAS. Opinion articles should be developed between 1500 and 2500 words and may contain subtopics such as, but not limited to, Introduction, opinion structure with subtitles, conclusion, and message to readers followed by questions.

3.6 Case studies
Case studies are a record of clinical interactions that can be utilized to frame research questions for more rigorously designed clinical studies. No conclusion or take-away message is usually entertained as it is just a description of what has happened. A case study is primarily a chronicle of a patient’s progress, not a story about chiropractic. The subtopics in a case study are, but not limited to, Introduction, Background, Case presentation (History, diagnosis etc.,), Management and outcome, Discussion with usual elements such as acknowledgement and bibliography.The length of the case study should be between 500 to 1,500 words. The case studies contains reports such as, but not limited to, clinical notes, lab reports, x-rays

3.7 Book reviews
You can submit a book review which should be between 600-1000 words. The information such as book title, author(s) name, date, publishers, ISSN, number of pages, Cost and a small write-up about you on how you are justifying that you are qualified to review the book. You can choose a newly published book or a book considered for publication. Since it is not a report on book, do not provide sub-topics, instead brief the contentand then highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the book.

3.8 Conceptual paper
Conceptual articles are describedas articles which shed insights on new theoretical perspectives or integrate existing theoretical views in order to address the innovative, new or adaptedprocedures or techniques. With the conceptual articles discussing about the current professional issues or professional development, they are otherwise well-reasoned reactions or responses to previously published articles. Though there is no specific word count requirement, you are required to limit the same within 1500 words.

3.9 Technical paper
A technical note is an article giving a brief description of a technique or procedure. The technique, procedureor device described should have practical value and coupled with great importance to the society. Technical reports are usually not referenced and between 3-4 pages (750-1000 words) in nature.

4. Universal readability
Authors need to ensure that their journal articles comply with the ‘Universal accessibility’ of the content so that differently-abled persons can access the content. In order to give people of all abilities and disabilities access the content, especially figures please make sure thatyou provide descriptive captions to all figures and use patterns instead of different colors to convey the difference/similarity.

5. Formatting a submission
Authors are requested to ensure that the submitted manuscript comply with the submission guidelines and if found mismatching the same may be sent to authors for re-submission. The authors are required to make use of the template and follow the sequence given hereby. Though some of the elements may or may not applicable in your study, this is a common template which can be used based on the article type.
• Article Title
• Authors and their full addresses
• Abstract (300 to 500 words)
• Key words
• Introduction
• Materials and Methods
• Results
• Discussion
• Conclusion
• Acknowledgement
• References

5.1 Title, Abstract, Keywords and Author names, Affiliation with Correspondence
The authors are advised to keep the title in a Concise and informative manner since it is primarily used by information-retrieval systems. Do not use abbreviations and formulae in the title. A maximum of 15 words and a minimum of 6 words is required in the title

Abstract
Structured abstract(Introduction, Methods, Results and conclusion) with word count between 300 to 500 words and no sub-headings are allowed in this structured abstract. Authors should avoid the use of personal pronouns.

Keywords
Authors are advised to provide appropriate and short keywords so that your submissions are user-friendly and visible to the maximum audience. A list of 4-7 keywords per article is suggested which should not exceed 8. Do not use language-specific keyword.

Author names, Affiliation, Correspondence
Author(s) names should be written in full with their designation and affiliation and country (ies). In case of more than one author, the name of the corresponding author should be marked with an asterisk (*) for identification purpose. The corresponding author’s Name, e-mail address, telephone and fax numbers should be provided clearly for communication.

5.2 Body text
Times new roman, 10 pt with no columns. The main headings should be numbered.
5.2.1 Abbreviations, Acronyms, Units, Equations and Formula
Authors are required to follow the abbreviations, acronyms and units as per the International standard guidelines put forth by IUPAC-IUB and Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature (CBN). Further, AJBAS follow IUPAC Manual of symbols and terminology for Physico-chemical quantities and units. Use the equation editor or MathType for equations

5.2.2 Figures and Tables
Authors are advised to use the table function, not spreadsheets, to make tables. All Figures which may be of any type such as charts, diagrams, line drawings, web pages/screenshots and photographic images should be submitted ONLY in electronic form, not as hard copy. Figures and Graphs should’ve been drawn clearly with captions. In case of multiple images combined together, the relevant markings should be given in order to ensure that the images are identified easily. AJBAS accepts TIFF or JPEG files for which the file size should not be more than 3 MB.For figures, the preferred resolution should be 300 dpi (color), 500 dpi (Black and White) and 1,000 dpi for line-art figure at the desired print size.Images less than this resolution will not be accepted for publications.

5.2.3 Footnotes
Authors are requested to ensure footnotes are used whenever it cannot be avoided and most necessarily to be used. Footnotes are not to be listed again the reference list.
5.2.4 Acknowledgement
Authors are encouraged to acknowledge under a separate section prior to references. Kindly do not add this information in title page/footnotes. Please list the individuals who contributed to the research in language help or proofreading etc.

5.2.5 Funding information
The funding information is to be listed with the ‘funding authority/institution’, grants number, date of grant. No need to explain the type of grant or the funded amount. If your university/institution/department received a group fund under which the research is conducted, do mention the same. 5.2.6 Author contribution
All the authors are requested to specify the contribution made by their co­authors (if any) in the end notes of the paper. If the authors are to be given equal credibility, then cite the information that ‘all the authors contributed equally to this work’

5.2.7 Conflict of Interest
All authors are requested to disclose any actual or potential conflict of interest including any financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations within three years of beginning the submitted work that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, their work.

5.2.8 Author biography
The size of the author photograph must be 1.14" and0.95". The author’s full name with a brief biodata on his/her credibility, research and professional experience, research interests, memberships, awards and grants/funds received in his/her name.

5.3 References (in-text and in list)
All the references are to be cited both in-text as well as in a separate list. The list of references should be arranged alphabetically after the acknowledgements. Kindly note that the number ofreferences should be 1 reference per 100-150 words.

S. No Type of reference In-Text In Reference list
1 Journal Article – Single author Perry (2003) early proved that ... This is in agreement with the results obtained by several authors (Brown, 1999; Kramer, 2004; Smith, 2008) Perry, D., 2005. Assessment of methodology with specific reference to case study. Journal of American Science, 1(2): 14-21.
2 Journal Article – Two authors Zhang and Cheng (2001) reported that... This was later found to be incorrect (Kumar and Ahmed, 2000) Zhang, D., and J.Cheng., 2005. Assessing Sediment Loading from Agricultural Croplands in the Great Lakes Basin. Journal of American Science, 1(2): 14-21.
3 For three or more authors Prince et al. (1990) stated that... Similar results were reported recently (Smith et al., 2003) Prince, D., J. Bartholic and J. Selegean, 2005. Assessing Sediment Loading from Agricultural Croplands in the Great Lakes Basin. Journal of American Science, 1(2): 14-21
4 References to web­only journals Prince et al. (1990) stated that... Similar results were reported recently (Smith et al., 2003) Prince, D., J. Bartholic and J. Selegean, 2005. Assessing Sediment Loading from Agricultural Croplands in the Great Lakes Basin. Journal of American Science. Retrieved from http://www.aensiweb.com/ on 31st December 2016
5 Journal Article – Single author with multiple publications in a year Stephen (2001a) did an extraordinary research on research methodology. His studies (Stephen, 2001a,b)…
6 Book Durbin et al. (1999) in a research conducted in biological sequencing… Durbin, R., S.R. Eddy, A. Krogh and G. Mitchison, 1999. Biological Sequence Analysis: Probabilistic Models of Proteins and Nucleic Acids. Cambridge University Press
7 One Chapter in a Book Leach (1993) assessed the impacts of zebra mussel… Leach, J., 1993. Impacts of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) on water quality and fish spawning reefs of Western Lake Erie. In Zebra mussels: biology, impacts and control, Eds., Nalepa, T. and D. Schloesser. Ann Arbor, MI: Lewis Publishers, pp: 381-397
8 Report Makarewicz et al. (1995) Makarewicz, J.C., T. Lewis and P. Bertram, 1995. Epilimnetic phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass and species composition in Lake Michigan, 1983-1992. U.S. EPA Great Lakes National Program, Chicago, IL. EPA 905-R-95-009
9 Conference Proceedings Stock (2004) mentioned that Singnal Transduction in Bacteria… Stock, A., 2004. Signal Transduction in Bacteria. In the Proceedings of the 2004 Markey Scholars Conference, pp: 80-89
10 Thesis (Mention as published or unpublished in the reference list prior to M.S. thesis) Strunk (1991) in his study on mercury extraction Strunk, J.L., 1991. The extraction of mercury from sediment and the geochemical partitioning of mercury in sediments from Lake Superior, M. S. thesis, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI
11 Website reference Makarewicz (1995) Makarewicz, D. J., 1995. Assessing Sediment Loading from Agricultural Croplands in the Great Lakes Basin. Retrieved from http://www.aensiweb.com/ on 31st December 2016


5.4 Appendix
If your article/submission requires appendix to be added, then cite it in alphabetical order within text wherever required. The same order must also be followed while the appendix is prepared and authors are required to ensure that there is no mismatch

5.5 Supplementary material
AJBAS accepts supplementary materials only in case of special requirements. These special materials may be animation movies, audio/video recordings, spreadsheets, PDF files,.pdb (chemical), .wrl (VRML), .nb (Mathematica notebook),.tex and .zip or .gz file. These supplementary materials whether need to be uploaded or accepted is at the sole discretion of the Editor-in-Chief.

5.6 Submission and Review process
Each manuscript submitted to AJBAS is reviewed by a team of Subject Matter Experts, Associate Editors and Key Opinion Leaders in the relevant subjects whereas the Editor-in-Chief finalizes the decision towards the submission. The significant contributions and noteworthy advances in the theoretical or conceptual bases of the scientific field aligning with the journal themeremains the main criteria for a submission to be accepted.The review process is a simple one and is explained as follows

chart

• AJBAS handles double-blind peer-reviewing policy in order to ensure that quality research articles are published
• AJBAS provides copy editing queries and page proofs (or e-galleys) via e-mail. We will be sending electronic proofs via emailto the corresponding author's as either a Microsoft word or pdf file once the final review is completed which should be returned within 48 hours of receipt. Authors need to know that the manuscript is final at this stage excluding minor checks like typographical errors. If authors are doing major alterations in text and in data, then the manuscript will be considered for re-evaluation which charges extra to the authors
• Final acceptance of a manuscript is contingent upon compliance with requirements
• Manuscripts other than Special Invited Papers are generally published inthe order of receipt of the final, accepted version or of the corrected proof

5.7 Post submission
Proofs will be sent to the corresponding author through e-mail once the submission is accepted.Your response with counter-comments or acceptance with or without corrections should be sent to us within 24 hours upon the receipt of our email. After this timeline, the author will be notified by the Editor-in-Chief whether the article will be considered for next issue in AJBAS. In spite of two reminders, if the corresponding author does not reply, the article will be archived and no further communications from the corresponding author regarding the submitted article will be entertained.

6. Copyright transfer, archiving policy and licensing agreement
Once the article is accepted for publications, the authors will be asked to transfer copyright of the article to AJBAS. This will ensure thewidest possible protection and dissemination of information under copyright laws. For papers to be published in this Journal, each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for the content. (This statement is taken from the authorship policy adopted by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and published in the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals, 1994 and N Engl J Med 336:309-315, 1997.)

Once you assigned the copyright to AJBAS, the author(s) allows us to
• Defend on your behalf in case of copyright infringement or unauthorised copying
• Protect your moral rights in cases of plagiarism or unauthorised derivative works
• Invest in new platforms, researches, editorials and journal services or book series so that your knowledge gets widely exposed to audience
• Disseminate your work to the best possible so that your work is highly cited by the future researchers
• Recoup copyright fees from reproduction rights organisations to reinvest in new initiatives and author/user services, such as the Research

7. Author services such as image designing and translation services
AJBAS receives manuscripts and check the content and style of the publications for meeting the author guidelines. However the copyeditor will not be contributing/altering the paper for language during which the authors can avail our Professional editing services for ‘Native English Language Editing and proofreading’. AJBAS offers ‘Editing, Proofreading’ services based on request in order to ensure that the language barriers are cleared to publish a research work of high standards. Authors are requested to note that the service provided by AJBAS is purely an optional, not a mandatory one. Further, if this service do not include ‘writing, contributing, analyzing’ of any type. Availing this add-on service by AJBAS doesn’t quality your manuscript automatically since it is at the sole discretion of Editor-in-Chief based on the quality of the research.

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