Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
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August 2018


Sperm Characteristics of Tiger Grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus), Comouflage Grouper (Epinephelus polyphekadion) and Giant Grouper (Epinephelus lanceolotus) in Controled tanks

Apri I. Supii, Diana Arifati, Maheno Sri Widodo and YuniKilawati

Abstract: The research object is sperm of tiger grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus), camouflage grouper (Epinephelus polyphekadion) and giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolotus). They are an important commodity used for hybridization in Asian. The research purpose is to know the sperm characteristics of the groupers. Sperm samples were obtained from selected mature male gonads. Parameters to determine the sperm characteristics are morphology, sperm plasma composition and the functional group analysis based on FTIR test. Morphological observations show that sperm of giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) has the largest head size. Six ion components observed in sperm plasma fishes were calcium, carbon, chlorine, oxygen, phosphorus and sodium. However, percentage of carbon and sodium ions in plasma sperm of camouflage grouper (Epinephelus polyphekadion) is unknown or nil. Information from the FTIR test shows that the three sperm tested have a functional group profile that tend same with wave number range of 667-3423 / cm.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-5 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.8.1


The Perception of Learning Agents' Behaviours by Students

Choo-Kim Tan, Wern-Lin Yeo, Choo-Peng Tan, Sook-Ling Lew, Noraini Binti Idris, Shaun Ng Wes

Abstract: This study aimed to examine students’ perceptions towards the behaviours (i.e. facial expressions and gestures) of learning agents (LAs) in mathematics learning. In this study, students were exposed to LAs in the learning of mathematics. At the end of the study, questionnaires were distributed to collect their perceptions towards LAs’ behaviours in learning. Most of the students in this study did not prefer having both the facial expressions and gestures in their learning. They preferred facial expressions more as compared to gestures.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 6-8 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.8.2


Students’ Preference on Learning Agents’ Gender

Choo-Kim Tan, Choo-Peng Tan, Wern-Lin Yeo, Noraini Binti Idris and Shaun Ng Wes

Abstract: Studies found that gender of teachers or leaning agents was one of the factors influences students’ learning. This study aimed to examine learning agents’ gender preferences by students in mathematics learning. During the mathematics learning with learning agents’, students were exposed to male and female learning agents. The learning agents provided teaching materials and encouragements as real teachers. Questionnaire was distributed at the end of the study for collecting students’ opinions on male and female learning agents in their learning process. Findings showed that preferences on both male and female learning agents’ by students were almost equal.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 9-11 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.8.3


Simulation Modelling for Cold Storage Time-Space Optimization of Fresh Agricultural Products

Dr.M.Vinoth, K.Mohamed Jasim and Dr.K.Abdus Samad

Abstract: The researchers examines and developed two different scenarios to identify and assess different cold storage time-space optimization of fresh agricultural products in Tamil Nadu, India. These overall time-space optimization method in logistics creates cost minimization, manpower planning, waste management, effective inventory techniques and quality maintenance. In scenario 1, the researchers consider how to maintain and measure time optimization in cold storage system of fresh agricultural products. In scenario 2, consider how to sustain and portion space optimization in cold storage system of fresh

[ FULL TEXT PDF 12-15 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.8.4


A Histological and Radiological Study on the Effect of Omperazole "Proton Pump Inhibitors" On the Femur of Adult Male Albino Rat

Omayma K. Afifi and Rasha R. Salem

Abstract: Background: Nowadays, many people are suffering from gastric ulcers and gastro esophageal diseases. Omperazole; which is one of the commonly used proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) is the best-established and therefore most-studied drug in this class. It is the most effective helpful drug in treatment of ulcer-like symptoms and bleeding of stomach. Many cases of bone fracture are reported in concomitant with the use of PPIs drugs. Aim of the work: Studying the effects of omperazole; as one of the commonly used PPIs, on the femur of adult albino rat histologically using light and electron microscope and radiologically by plain X-rays. Materials and methods: Fourteen adult male albino rats divided equally into control and experimental groups were used. Each rat in the experimental group was daily injected subcutaneously with omperazole at a dose of 20 mg/kg (4 mg/mL in physiological saline) for 28 days. The femur was dissected and the bone specimens were prepared for light, electron microscopic study and X-ray examination. Results: Microscopic sections revealed thinning out of the outer compact bone with erosion cavities leading to fracture in some specimens. The periosteum were thinned specially the outer fibrous layer. The inner spongy bone trabeculae were also thinned out, destroyed and separated by wide bone marrow spaces. Both osteoblasts and osteocytes showed marked degenerative changes and were surrounded by few irregular collagenous matrix while the osteoclasts were raised in number and appeared more active and dynamic. Conclusion: the bone fracture after use of omperazole might be considered as a result of increased osteoclastic activity and degenerative changes in both osteoblasts and osteocytes.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 16-25 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.8.5


Fluoride Content of Still Bottled Water Brands Available in Enugu, Nigeria

ICHU, Chigozie Bright and NWOGU, Nwanyinnaya Akuagwu

Abstract: Fluoride content of drinking water is important for public health because of its ability to prevent dental cavities in optimal dose. Twenty different brands of still bottled water brands were purchased from supermarkets in Enugu metropolis from October 2017 to March 2018. Three bottles of different batch numbers from each of the brands were used for the analysis. The fluoride content of all samples was determined, in triplicate per batch, using the zirconium- Alizarin red-S spectrometric method. The mean (± SD) fluoride content of the bottled waters was 1.66 (± 0.28) mg L-1 with a range from 1.35 - 2.25 mg L-1. One-way ANOVA showed a significant difference in the fluoride content of the batches, p - value, 0.008<0.05. The paired samples t-test showed a non-significant difference between the first and second reading of each batch, p-value, 0.761>0.05. The independent samples t-test showed a non-significant difference between mean fluoride content of bottled water made in Enugu and those made outside Enugu, p-value, 0.290>0.05. The result from this study showed that different brands of bottled water consumed in Enugu metropolis contain appreciable fluoride contents which could help to prevent dental problem in the consumers.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 26-29 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.8.6


Synthesis and Characterization of New Hexahydro-1,3,5-S-Triazines Derivatives from Benzo Caine

Hayder Jawad Abed and Souad Jabbar Lafta

Abstract: The synthesis of the hexahydro-1,3,5-s-triazine from the reaction of ethyl-p-aminobenzoate with aqueous formaldehyde (37%) in absolute ethanol. hexahydro-1,3,5-s-triazine (A) is treated with hydrazine hydrate (99%) in absolute ethanol gives the carbohydrazide (A1) The reaction of carbohydrazide (A1) with formic acid gives the amide derivative (A2) while its condensation with aromatic aldehydes in presence of glacial acetic acid as a catalyst afforded the schiff’s bases A(3-6). The treatment of hydrazide (A1) with aliphatic and aromatic anhydrides afforded the heterocyclic pyridazine derivatives A(7-9). Finally the reaction of the triazine (A) with thiosemicarbazide in presence of Sodium acetate gives the compound (A10) which is treated with aromatic aldehydes to afford schiff’s bases A(11-12).

[ FULL TEXT PDF 30-32 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.8.7


Germination Performance in Seeds and Initial Development of Forage Seedlings Under Different Concentrations of Salicylic Acid

Lucas Aparecido Manzani Lisboa, Laís Naiara Honorato Monteiro, Marcela Sant’ Anna Cordeiro da Silva, Laura Helena da Silva, Paulo Alexandre Monteiro de Figueiredo, Gabriel Banos Rodriguês, Ronaldo da Silva Viana, Sérgio Bispo Ramos, Gelci Carlos Lupatini, Victor Garcia Venâncio

Abstract: Introduction:The use of Urochloa genre pastures in the forage industry is expanding, increasingly demanding high quality seeds. However, forage seed species commonly present dormancy and to overcome it an efficient and economically viable method is to soak seeds in acid, and among these, the salicylic acid may be a viable option. Objective: Thus, this study aimed to evaluate dormancy breaking in seed and early development of forage seedlings under different doses of salicylic acid. Material and Methods: The experiment was conducted in Dracena Campus of São Paulo State University - UNESP. The experimental design was completely randomized with 15 treatments and 4 repetitions of 20 seeds. Seeds of Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu, U. brizantha cv. Xaraés and U. ruziziensis were immersed for 30 minutes in the salicylic acid levels: 0; 0.0025; 0.005; 0.01 and 0.02 mol/L and placed in gerbox boxes. Fifteen days after sowing, the following variables were evaluated: GSI – germination speed index; SG – Speed of germination; %G – Percentage of germination; LAP – Length of the air part; RL – Root length; DMAP – Dry mass of the air part and DMR – Dry mass of root. Conclusion: The use of salicylic acid at doses of 0.0025 and 0.02 mol/L increased the germination of both cultivars of Urochloa brizantha Xaraés and Urochloa ruziziensis. The germination of Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu was not influenced by the application of salicylic acid. The 0.005 mol/L dose of salicylic acid resulted in higher initial growth and higher dry matter deposition in all studied species.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 33-37 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.8.8


Nitrogen Enrichment of Activated Carbon Made From Coconut Shell of Ivory Coast and its Application in Cd2+ Ions Removal

Kouakou Vianet Bossombra, Tchirioua Ekou, Lynda Ekou and Trong-On Do

Abstract: Urea was employed to modify activated carbons by KOH activation at high temperature from coconut shell from Ivory Coast. The urea-modified activated carbon was used to improve Cd2+ ions adsorption from aqueous solutions. The original activated carbon (AC) and urea-modified activated carbon (ACU) were characterized by N2 adsorption/desorption, Boehm's titration, SEM, FTIR,elemental analysis and XPS analysis. The Cd2+ ions removal capabilities of AC and ACU were evaluated by batch sorption experiments. The results of N2 adsorption/desorption demonstrated that the BET surface areas and total pore volumes of AC decreased after urea-modification. Nevertheless, the results of elemental analysis, Boehm's titration and FTIR showed that ACU contained more surface nitrogen functional groups than AC. Adsorption tests revealed that ACU had a higher adsorption capacity of Cd2+ than AC. Experimental adsorption data of Cd2+ ions on AC and ACU were better described by the Freundlich model.The main mechanisms for the adsorption of Cd2+ ions onto the carbons were supposed to be cation exchange and covalent bond formation.Kinetic study was performed,and the pseudo-second order model better described the adsorptions processes.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 38-44 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.8.9


Ratio, Proportion and Rule of three: Reflections on Contextualization in the Area Agricultural Sciences

Luciana Boemer Cesar Pereira, Guataçara dos Santos Junior, João de Assis Farias, Lucas Silva Oliveira

Abstract: This article aims to reflect on the contextualization of the content of ratio, proportion and rule of three in the area of Agrarian Sciences. For that, a little history of the Rule of Three algorithm is presented according to the authors Mol (2013), Boyer (2012, Garding (1981) and Broocks (1880). Following on the literature is research on this subject related to teaching and learning. Also analyzed some examples of activities contextualized in some sub-areas of Agricultural Sciences. It follows that the contents of ratio, proportion and rule of three must be taught in a way that ensures that when the student needs to establish relations between proportional quantities and calculate a rule of three in the most diverse disciplines of his course, they can do so successfully. The examples of activities analyzed show that it is possible to contextualize the teaching of the content of ratio, proportion and rule of three with diversity in the area of Agrarian Sciences. There are many other contexts that have been cited by the teachers surveyed and show the need for students to develop the ability to work with proportions.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 45-48 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.8.10


Design and Implementation of Wireless Mobile Robotic arm Controller based Smart phone and Embedded System via Bluetooth
Ahmed A. Radhi

Abstract: Embedded systems have received significant attention during the last decade mainly because of their numerous applications. They can be found in robotics, smart buildings, fabrication equipment, automation, industrial, commercial, military applications as well as medical. Most of the modern embedded systems are based on microcontrollers. The purpose of this research is to design and implement a pick and place objects mobile robotic arm based android controlling via Bluetooth by using Arduino microcontroller. At the transmitting end using android application device, commands are sent to the receiver to control the movement of the robot either to move forward, back ward and left or right etc. At the receiving end seven motors are interfaced to the microcontroller where five of them are used for arm and gripper movement of the robot while the other two are for the body movement of the vehicle.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 49-53 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.8.11


Effect of Polypropylene Fibers and Sea Water on the Performance of Recycled Aggregate Concrete

Ayed A. Zuhud

Abstract: Reusing of concrete rubbles extracted from construction and demolition(C&D) wastes in concrete can be described as a goodsolution for environmental protection and economical savings. Owing to the very limited space for land reclamation in Gaza Strip to dispose million tons of C&D waste and no any kind of aggregate resources, there is bad need to find another resources of aggregate.Using of recycled aggregate (RA) extracted from concrete rubbles in concrete can be useful for environmental protection and economical saving terms. This paper reports the results of an experimental study on the mechanical properties of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) as compared to natural aggregate concrete (NAC). The effect of Polypropylene (PP) fiber on physical and mechanical properties were also discussed in this paper. The research involved experiments to analyze the mechanical behavior of RA concrete after immersing the samples in sea water and to analyse sea water effects on recycled aggregate mixed with polyprobelyne (PP) fibers . The (NA) was replaced in concrete mixes by (RA) extracted from concrete rubbles with percentages .0, 50.0 and 100.0%. The RA concrete mixes was mixed with (PP) fiber with various percentages 0.0,.25 0.1,0.5 ,1.0,1.5% of total volume , 0.1% PP fiber resulted in maximum compressive and tensile strength was used in the other concrete mixes. To investigate the intended mechanical properties 94 specimens were casted .The workability of concrete was reduced when the NA aggregate was replaced by RA and adding PP fibers to concrete mixes increased the reduction of the workability. The compressive, splitting tensile (ST) and flexural tensile (Fr) strength for 50.0% RCA mixes was reduced by 12.7, 7.5 and 20.34% respectively, but when 100.0%RCA was used the strength was reduced by21.8, 20.5 and 30.83% respectively .Adding PP fibers enhanced the strength of RA concrete specially tensile strengths, where 100 % RCA concrete gained 7.2,29.3 and 74.3% for compressive, ST and Fr respectively. It was concluded that replacing NA with RA reduced the strength of concrete and modulus of elasticity but adding PP fibers enhances the strength of concrete and modulus of elasticity. Immersing plain concrete mixes in sea water for 8 months increased the compressive strength for concrete without fibers by 16.5, 15.5 and 7.0% for 50.0 and 100 % RA concrete but immersing RA concrete mixed with PP fiber in seawater reduced the compressive strength by about 4.0% butST and Fr increased for RA concrete mixed with fibers 8 months in seawater .

[ FULL TEXT PDF 54-64 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.8.12


Volume Equations and Volumetric Stock Evaluation of Hovenia dulcis in Araucaria Forest

Carlos Henrique Boscardin Nauiack, Afonso Figueiredo Filho and Mailson Roik

Abstract: Background: The exotic invasive species Hovenia dulcis is a contaminant of different vegetation types in southern Brazil. Due to the threats for the country native forest, control mechanisms of Hovenia dulcis must be sought in order to establish strategies to mitigate the adverse impacts on ecosystems. Objective: The aim of this study was to develop volume equations for Hovenia dulcis under natural regeneration in Araucaria Forest, belonging to the Atlantic Forest Biome, to evaluate the mean individual commercial stem volume and the volume production per diameter class. Methods: The research was carried out on 16 native forests fragments located in the municipality of Fernandes Pinheiro, Central-South region of Paraná, Brazil. The volume models were adjusted with 80 cubed trees data, for the cubing process it was used the absolute method, which recommends the prior definition of the stem measurement points and their application to all trees. The bark diameters were measured at the following absolute heights (m): 0.1; 0.7; 1,3; 2,3; 4,3; and every 2 meters up to the total height. The most common regression statistics were used in the evaluation of the model: adjusted coefficient of determination (R2adj), the estimate standard error in percentage (Syx%) and the graphical residual (Res%). The best model was used to define an evaluate the total volume production and the mean individual commercial stem volume per diameter class for Hovenia dulcis measured in 16 forest fragments. Results: The Schumacher-Hall model was chosen to estimate the total stem volume for Hovenia dulcis, with satisfactory adjusted statistics. In general, the dual input models (DBH and height) were superior to the simple input models (DBH). The population of Hovenia dulcis have a total stem volume of 72.32 m3 and it was observed a bimodal curve with two production peaks for the volume production by diameter class. The volume production curve follows a growth trend in the first four classes and from 5th class it assumes a decreasing trend, mainly, by the sharp decrease in the number trees. The same first four class contains 41.6% of the total volume and have 69.7% of the trees, that is, more than two thirds of the population. The last five classes with diameters above 22 cm contribute with 58.3% (42.2 m3) of the total volume with only 30.3% (274) of the trees. Conclusion: The adjusted volume models can be used efficiently to determining the commercial stem volume of Hovenia dulcis. Volume production and frequency of trees per diameter class can be used to determine management methodologies for Hovenia dulcis.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 65-69 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.8.13


Online Purchase Intention for Baby Products in Indian context using Linear Programming Models

E.Pradeep, Dr.V.M.Shenbagaraman and Dr.P.Saravanan

Abstract: In the current scenario, the customers are giving more importance on the purchase of any products. But when it comes to baby products, the customers or particularly parents are very much keen on the quality of the product, hygiene and safety of the products. Now the companies are also developing the products with the latest cutting edge concerning the safety of the product. The retailers are in India are trying to provide the best products to the customers. The customers will look into various factors very seriously when they are purchasing the baby products. They go with the word of mouth; they browse into the website, they see for the product reviews, consumer reports, etc. before purchasing the baby products. This research paper reveals the purchase intention of the baby products and the factors that really influence to purchase the products. The paper shows simulation modelling on the purchase intention of the baby products.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 70-72 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.8.14


Does Age Influence Investor Behavior in the Secondary Equity Market?

Dr. Renu Isidore. R. and Dr.P.Christie

Abstract: The biological age of the investor was found to be an important factor with respect to the behavioral biases exhibited by the investors. Using a sample of 322 male secondary equity investors residing in Chennai, eight behavioral biases namely Mental Accounting, Anchoring, Gambler’s Fallacy, Availability, Loss Aversion, Regret Aversion, Representativeness and Overconfidence were measured using the questionnaire survey method. When the normalised biases were divided on the basis of the age of the investor, and tested using ANOVA, the senior investors who were above 55 years old were found to be more prone to exhibit the Anchoring, Availability and Loss Aversion biases compared to the other age groups. The majority of the senior investors were found to be mainly retired individuals, with a bachelor’s degree and some investment knowledge, earning low annual income and earning a mediocre actual return from stock investments. The financial advisors and wealth managers should thereby concentrate more on the aged investors who exhibit more behavioral biases compared to the other age groups and guide them to take appropriate trading strategies and investment plans.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 73-82 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.8.15


The Effect of Logging on the Eschweileracoriacea(dc.) S.A. Mori Population

Janderson de Oliveira Silva, Fábio de Jesus Batista, Luciana Maria de Barros Francez, Jhonnathan Lima da Silva, Jhulia Melo Nobrega, Thamires Mendes Coelho Ferreira, Thaís Matias de Oliveira, João Olegário Pereira de Carvalho, Vanessa Mayara Souza Pamplona, Ademir Roberto Ruschel

Abstract: Background: The forest logging, even under good management practices, changes the structure and composition of the forest. It can be a risk for several species, with and without commercial use. Therefore, there is a need to understand the dynamics of different species to cause less impact in the forest succession after logging. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the diameter structure, basal area, diameter increment and, the spatial distribution of trees in a native forest emphasizing on Eschweilera coriacea, before and after logging. Methods: The study was conducted at Fazenda Rio Capim, in Paragominas, state of Pará, in 108 ha of a terra firme rain forest. Data collecting occurred before (2003), and after logging (2007 and 2011) in 24 permanent plots of 0.25 ha, being 12 plots unlogged forest (T0) and the other 12, logged forest (T1). All trees with diameter at breast height equal or above 10 cm were evaluated. Results:The species E. coriacea had high importance value index in the three assessments and in the two treatments tested the diameter distribution of both tree community and the species population followed the reverse J-curve pattern. The Liocourt Quotient (q) for the tree community in T0 ranged from 2.03 to 2.07 and 1.98 to 2.05, in T1. However, for E. coriacea, the "q" ranged from 1.72 to 2.00 in T0 and from 1.80 to 2.05 in T1. The basal area of the tree community increased in T0, decreased in T1 in 2007, followed by an increase in 2011 and, the E. coriaceabasal area increased in T0 and T1 in the periods evaluated. No differences were detected between basal areas of the tree community or E. coriacea in the treatments/years. The diameter increment of E. coriacea was higher in T1, the spatial distribution of E. coriacea trees in both treatments was grouped. Logging did not cause changes in the tree community, although it favored the E. coricea growth. The special distribution of E. coriaceain both treatments were aggregated. Conclusion: The forest logging did not offer changes to the trees community according to the variables. There was no significant difference between the treatments and within them, certainly, the method of management applied to the area was adequate for that type of forest. Furthermore, the logging in T1 treatment favored the growth of E. coriaceathat were higher than in T0.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 83-89 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.8.16


Two Window and One Rivers The Possibility of Dayak Meratus People in Capitalist Society

Setia Budhi. Ph. D.

Abstract: Sometimes, social science started from wanderers. They left footsteps in the areas they have visited, bequeathed stories that have not been heard by outsiders. They recorded various occurrences that were subsequently recognized and enjoyed by researchers, observers, scientists and and people in general. The footstep in the form of writings was referred to as scholarly reports, while the history of their development was called philology. This paper was part of the ethnographic in-field study of Loksado people conducted in February 2014 to November 2016. The discussion focused on how social sciences wandered in the location of the study, which was Dayak Meratus land in South Kalimantan and then described the indigeneous knowledge of the local people published in textbooks, journals and other scholarly publications. And then, the world of sciences recognized Dayak Meratus people as the concept of cultivating society, customary people, Balian ceremony and Dayak ethnomedicine. It was expected that the short description of the in-field study in Kalimantan could contribute to the development of social sciences in Indonesia

[ FULL TEXT PDF 90-93 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.8.17


Proposed Learning Agent for Reducing Different Mathematics Anxiety Levels

Huai-Swan Khoo, Choo-Kim Tan, and Wooi-Ping Cheah

Abstract: In Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM), Mathematics is the fundamental core of all three subjects of Science, Technology, and Engineering in attaining precision. Hence, Mathematics is known to be the primary gateway to STEM. However, there is a phenomenon known as mathematics anxiety which has caused the drop-in performance of students in Mathematics and caused them to opt out the choices in pursuing STEM majors and careers. With the advanced development of technology, animated learning agent can be used to provide anxiety treatment messages to students when they are learning mathematics in computer-based virtual learning environment. The purpose of this study is to propose a framework of an animated learning agent which will provide anxiety treatment messages of the appropriate type and amount of anxiety treatment messages to students based on their prior mathematics anxiety levels and effectively alleviate their mathematics anxiety. This is because students with different levels of prior mathematics anxiety level will react differently to different type of messages and number of messages provided. It is hoped that this study will be significant for researchers, educators and system developers to identify the type and amount of anxiety treatment messages that should be provided on effectively alleviate students’ mathematics anxiety.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 94-97 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.8.18


Experimental Investigations on Hydraulic Jump Characteristics for Different Hydraulic and Geometric Conditions

Mahmoud Ali R. Eltoukhy and Neveen B. Abdel-Mageed

Abstract: Changing the flow condition from supercritical to subcritical flow causes hydraulic jump phenomenon with considerable energy dissipation and rise in depth of flow. This phenomenon primarily serves as an energy dissipater to dissipate excess energy of flowing water downstream of hydraulic structures. This study has been carried out in the Hydraulic Laboratory, Department of Irrigation and Hydraulics, Cairo University. The main objective of this study is to investigate the hydraulic jump characteristics for different hydraulic and geometric conditions. Changing flow discharge and the flow through one or two vents are considered as hydraulic conditions, and pier length and the fence location and porosity are considered as geometric conditions. Results show that sequent depth and hydraulic jump height ratios increase with Froude number for the two vents inflow, also energy loss ratio increases with Froude number but for one vent inflow. It was, also found that the formed whirl length and the hydraulic jump length ratios increase with the increase of pier length and fence porosity. All results were interpreted in forms of dimensionless curves and equations, which are used to estimate the hydraulic jump characteristics for given hydraulic and geometric conditions.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 98-104 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.8.19


Skin structure and wool fibres characteristics of Barki sheep fed on biologically treated moringa stalks

Safaa, E. M. El-Desoky; Naglaa, S. Badawy; Aisha S. Abdou and N.H. Fares

Abstract: The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of feeding moringa stalks on the morphology and structure of the different skin components of Barki sheep. The study was carried out on twenty adult Barki rams in Maryout research station, Desert Research Center of Egypt during the period from February to August 2014. Sheep skin consists mainly of epidermis and dermis. The epidermis composed of stratified squamous keratinized epithelium and its thickness was affected significantly by changing the animal's diet using untreated or biologically treated moringa stalks instead of hay. The dermis consists of connective tissue which is divided into an upper papillary layer and a lower reticular layer. The control group recorded the highest total skin thickness and also all its layers. The histological measurements showed that, the thickness of sweat glands was not affected significantly by the changing diets whereas yeast group recorded the highest thickness comparable to the other experimental groups. Secondary to primary follicle ratio (S/P) increased in the yeast group than the other experimental groups. The structure of the wool follicle in the sheep skin consisted of outer root sheath and inner root sheath which concentrically composed of three distinct layers: Henle’s layer, Huxley’s layer and the cuticle. The external and internal diameters of both primary and secondary wool follicles were significantly increased in sheep fed berseem hay than those in untreated or biologically treated moringa stalk. While follicle wall thickness showed a slight decrease in untreated moringa stalk. The fibre diameter in both primary and secondary follicles was affected in a highly significant degree by the changes in the experimental diets, and there was a harmony between the primary fibre diameter and its medulla thickness. Animals of control group recorded the greatest fibre diameters produced from the primary follicles and its medulla thickness. Also, the fibre diameters produced from the secondary follicles followed the same trend. The wool fibre types in sheep fleeces are kemp, hetero, coarse and fine. The percentage and length of kemp and coarse fibres recorded the highest values in the control group, while animals fed on untreated moringa stalk had the longest and the highest percentage of hetero fibres type. Fine fibres percentage, length and the number of crimps/centimeters were clearly superior in biologically treated groups. Therefore, the study successes in using non-conventional and low coast feed materials with acceptable production efficiency from the view point of the sheep skin and coat throughout the biological treatment which is believed to be more environmental friendly and safer than the use of chemicals.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 105-117 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.8.20


Isolation of Coagulase Positive Staphylococci from She-Camel Milk at Eastern Libya and Their Drug Susceptibility Patterns

Ebtisam M. Abdurabbah, Nawara M. A. Eissa, Sherif. M. Hussieny, Youmna I. Mahmoud, Nagui. H. Fares

Abstract: Aim: This study was carried out with aim to isolate Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) from she camel milk and determine antibiogram pattern of S. aureus isolates. A total of 220 she camel milk samples were collected from seven different locations in Al Jabal Al Akhdar, Eastern of Libya. The samples were collected under aseptic precautions and were enriched in blood agar medium, followed by direct plating on selective media, Baird-Parker Agar, and mannitol salt agar. The presumptive S. aureus isolates were identified by biochemical test, AVIPATH-STAPH test. Antibiogram pattern of S. aureus to antimicrobial agents were evaluated by disk diffusion method. Analysis of the results revealed that coagulase positive Staphylococci were identified as 2.7% out of the total examined milk samples (220). In the present study S. aureus isolates were found variably resistant to the antibiotics tested. The S. aureus isolates showed highest sensitivity towards both gentamycin, 10 mg and cephalexin, 30 mg (100%), followed by chloramphenicol, 10 mg and amoxicillin as 66.7% and clavulanic acid, 30 as 33.3%. The pattern clearly indicated that the overall high percent of S. aureus isolates were resistant to ampicillin 10 mg (100%), followed by cephalexin, 30 mg (83.3 %), streptomycin, 10 mg (66.7 %), and neomycin, 30mg (50 %). Conclusions: Results clearly suggested a possibility of potential public health threat of S. aureus resulting from contamination of camel milk with pathogenic bacteria mainly due to unhygienic processing, handling and unhygienic environment.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 118-123 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.8.21


Monitoring of some feeding behavior of foxes inhabiting kharga Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt

Eman M.E. Mohallal

Abstract: Foxes are one of the most abundant carnivores in Egypt. However, most studies of dietary composition of the fox populations are based on the analysis of stomach contents only. In this study, camera trap was used to observe the feeding behaviors of wild foxes inhabiting the Kharga oasis by using different types of food as lures. In Egypt, most people co-existing with foxes consider them to be a threat. Primarily, foxes are believed to kill and transmit diseases to domestic animals. In this study, camera trap footage revealed that foxes typically forage as solitary individuals, and when there is variation in the type of food available the foxes usually select the lightest food item they can carry and run away from the site. In this study, the favorite food item for foxes was chicken or bones, rather than tomatoes and soft food, but foxes never ate spoiled chicken carcasses and rather deposited scent marks on top of them.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 124-129 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.8.22