Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
   
   


August 2019

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Comparing the Sensitivity of Quantity Based and Useful Lifetime Based Fixed Lifetime Inventory Models to Changes in Costs

Izevbizua O and Apanapudor J

Abstract: The decision to order new items in the fixed lifetime inventory system depend on either the quantity of items on hand; that is when inventory drops to the reorder point or on the number of useful lifetimes remaining on the items. In this work, we compare the sensitivity of Chiu’s model where the decision to reorder new items is based on the quantity of items on hand with Izevbizua and Omosigho’s model where the decision to reorder new items depends on the number of useful lifetimes remaining on the items on hand.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-7 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.8.1

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Utilization of Lemongrass Leaves Powder (Cymbopogon citratus) in Improving Beef Burger

Sara M.S. Awad

Abstract: This study aimed to prepare beef burger formulae by substituted of beef meat by dried lemongrass with different ratio 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0%. Chemical composition, lipid oxidation, microbiological and organoleptic evaluation were investigated during frozen storage at -20o for three months. Results indicated that Moisture, protein and fat were determined in both raw and cooked beef burgers. Thiobarbituric acid, peroxide number and total bacterial count were determined in beef burgers during frozen storage period for three months at - 20oC. Results indicated that both moisture and protein were decreased as the storage period proceeded, while total lipids were increased. Storage deteriorated diameter retention, moisture retention and cooking loss were increased during frozen storage. Cooking yield was increased by storage time. As the storage period increased, the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values were increased for all beef burgers. The higher value was found in control sample and the lowest was found in 3.0% lemongrass. Total bacterial counts to prepared beef burgers was decreased as the level of lemongrass increased . During frozen storage the number of bacteria was gradually decreased. Lemongrass showed an antibacterial effect. Organoleptic evaluation of prepared beef burgers was recorded highly score of all sensory properties and also highly acceptable by the panelists. The formulae contained 1.0% lemongrass showed the best acceptability.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 8-17 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.8.2

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Correlation Relationship between Different GGMs Data over Egypt

Tarek M. Awwad

Abstract: The Ellipsoidal /Geodetic heights (h) and the Orthometric heights (H), as a vertical positioning value, are measuring by GPS (Global Positioning System) and traditional field survey techniques respectively. Most of civil engineering projects need to convert between the both heights for different territories by knowing (N) value (the geoid undulation/geoidal height), which can be calculated by different GGMs (Global Geo-potential Models). Since each GGM will has a different (N) value for the same location, so the calculated of (N) value will be affect directly in the accuracy of calculated heights. The main objective of this study is to measure the strength of correlation between data of eight GGMs, which were used often over Egypt recently and recommended by different previous studies as a best fit to reality over Egypt. Pearson’s correlation coefficient (R) was used to evaluate the correlation relationship between EIGEN-GL04C data (as a reference) and the data of the other seven GGMs individually. The calculated seven values of (R) were used also to re-arrange different GGMs based on the degree of correlated. Due to the distinguished location, the large area (about 1000000 Km2) and the elevations variety of Egypt territories (mountains, plains, valleys, deserts and flat areas), this are given her additional importance to most field survey studies. So, test points (346 points) were selected and distributed regularly over Egypt. The selected points are confined between two latitudes (ϕ) [22° N, 31° N] and between two longitudes (λ) [26° E, 36° E] and the distance between each two neighbored points about 50 Km. This paper concluded that; the seven calculated correlation coefficient values (R) approached to (+1), which means the correlation relationships between the reference data (EIGEN-GL04C) and each one of other GGMS data are perfectly linear under an increasing relationship. The correlation coefficient (R) values are confined between (RMin) = 0.911315 of EGM96 and (RMax.) = 0.997203 of GGM03C. According to the calculated (R) values, the seven GGMs were arranged from largest to smallest value. Finally, this paper recommends five of eight GGMs as a best GGMS data fit to reality over Egypt and consequently the using of these data will affect positively in the calculated orthometric height value (H).

[ FULL TEXT PDF 18-23 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.8.3

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Germination and Initial Development of Carioca Beans Treated with Bio-Stimulant

Francielli Geremia, Lucheli Sirtoli Corá, Luis Gustavo Bertoldo, Alberto Ricardo Stefeni, Rayanah Stival Svidzinski, Fernando Luiz Schneider

Abstract: Beans represent one of the most traditional foods in the Brazilian diet, providing essential nutrients such as proteins, minerals, vitamins, carbohydrates and fibers, in this way the search for new technologies that promote productivity improvements is of fundamental importance. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of bio-stimulant on seed germination and initial seedling development of beans TANGARA® belonging to the carioca commercial group. The experiment was conducted at the Laboratório de Tecnologia de Sementes da Faculdade Educacional de Dois vizinhos/FAED – UNISEP - União de Ensino do Sudoeste do Paraná, Campus Dois Vizinhos – PR. The experimental design was completely randomized (DIC) with 5 treatments and four replicates of 50 seeds each. The f treatments consisted of different concentrations of stimulate®, being: T1: control; T2: 1 mL of stimulate®/kg of seeds; T3: 2 mL of stimulate®/kg of seeds; T4: 4 mL of stimulate®/kg of seeds; T5: 6 mL of stimulate®/kg of seeds. The percentage of normal, abnormal germinated seeds, hard seeds and dead seeds, root and shoot length were evaluated. There was a positive effect for the percentage of germination of seeds and non-geminated seeds at 5 days, normal seedlings, root and shoot length at concentrations of 4 and 6 mL/1kg of bean seed.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 24-28 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.8.4

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Variation of Leaf Area Index by Remote Sensing and Surface Measurements for a Tropical Savanna

Jonathan Willian Zangeski Novais, Victor Hugo de Morais Danelichen, Maria Aparecida Pereira Pierangeli, Levi Pires de Andrade, Luciana Sanches, Fernando da Silva Sallo, Osvaldo Alves Pereira.

Abstract: Studies of vegetation in parks within the urban perimeter are scarce, since the study of green area dynamics within a city requires high cost and mobility of collection. In this context, remote sensing appears as an ideal tool for the study of vegetation in contrast to anthropic areas. The ceptometer sensor are the most used in leaf area index in spatial analysis, so measurements with this type of sensor can be used to validate remote sensing products for this variable. Thus, the objective of this study was to measure leaf area index (LAI) obtained by orbital sensor in contrast to measurements in loco. Landsat 8 satellite reflectance measurements were used for validation with locally measured data at 30 sample points. The photosynthetically active radiation incident off and below the canopy, as well as the transmittance of the canopy, were measured at the site. The research was carried out in the tropical savanna fragment located in the Mãe Bonifácia park, in the Cuiabá city, Brazil, from October 2014 to September 2015. The leaf area index estimates presented a seasonal characteristic ranging from 6.5 m2 m-2 in December 2014, rainy month, and 2.7 m2 m-2 in September, dry month. For the data of orbital sensors, it is noticed that the highest values of LAI are observed in the year of 2015, with the highest median in April. The orbital sensor data averaged 21% of the data measured in loco, however the correlation coefficients and determination were considered satisfactory, modeling well the leaf area index dynamics, but indicating that adjustments should be made in the model for better fit.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 29-39 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.8.5

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Influence of Garcinia kola seed meal in diets of goats; Effect on rumen fermentation, nutrient utilisation, blood metabolites and faecal flora

Michael Igbaekemen Okoruwa and Onuwabhagbe Michael Edoror

Abstract: Manipulation of the gut functions with feed additives has been recognized as an important strategy for improving performance and feed efficiency in goats. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of Garcinia kola seed meal in diet supplements of goats; effect on rumen digestion, nutrient utilisation, blood metabolites and faecal flora. However, twenty-four West African dwarf male goats aged between 7 and 8 months old with mean live weight of 7.00 ± 0.38kg, were used in a completely randomized design for 84days. The goats were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments containing 0%, 2%, 4% and 6% of Garcinia kola inclusion levels. The 0% inclusion level served as the control group. Data obtained on rumen, metabolic and blood studies were analysed using one-way analysis of variance. Results obtained showed that rumen pH, total volatile fatty acids, ammonia nitrogen, acetate and propionate ratio, ether extract digestibility, nitrogen output, white blood cell, urea, cholesterol, feed intake and E. coli were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in GKA than other diets. Acetate, butyrate, neutral and acid detergent fiber were higher (P < 0.05) than diets GKA, GKC and GKD. Animals on GKC were significantly (P < 0.05) superior in propionate, digestibility of crude protein, fiber and its fractions, with nitrogen free extract, nitrogen retention, packed cell volume, haemoglobin, red blood cell, total protein, glucose and weight gains. Nitrogen intake and lactobacilli were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in animals on GKD. However, significant (P > 0.05) difference did not occur in rumen temperature, digestibility of dry matter with ash, albumin, globulin, creatinine, initial with final body weight, Enterobacteria, Coliforms bacteria and total bacteria load. It was concluded that goats fed diets containing 2% and 4%Garcinia kola inclusion levels had better rumen fermentation, nutrient utilisation, blood profile and faecal flora than those fed on 0% and 6% inclusion levels.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 40-47 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.8.6

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Influence of mechanical cycling in the microbiological seal and microgaps in tapered connection implants

Benedito Damasceno Ferreira Neto, Elizabeth Ferreira Martinez, Daiane Cristina Peruzzo, Júlio César Joly, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes França, Marcelo Henrique Napimoga

Abstract: Background: This study evaluated the bacterial seal and adaptation of the abutments in a tapered connection implant system (Titaoss, Intraoss, Brazil) by means of microbiological and morphological analysis after cyclic loading. Objectives: The hypothesis of the study was to evaluate if after cycling the adaptation between abutment and implant creates gap allowing the passage of microorganisms. Methods: Twelve implants and their respective prosthetic abutments/crowns were fixed with a screw under torque of 20N.cm. The gap between the abutment and the implant was measured after the initial torque with the aid of a stereomicroscope and then subjected to compressive loads of 120 N and 2 Hz. After cycling, a new microgap measurement was performed and the samples were immersed in Escherichia coli suspension and incubated at 37°C. After 14 days, the prosthetic abutments were separated from the respective implants, and the presence of bacterial infiltration was evaluated. For the statistical calculations, the Student t test, binomial and G tests were used at a significance level of 5%. Results: The results showed that the specimens submitted to compressive load showed significantly smaller microgaps between the abutment and implant significantly than the non-cycled samples (p = 0.032). There was no significant difference in bacterial leakage in the implant models studied, regardless of mechanical cycling (p = 0.296). Conclusion: The tapered connection implant system used showed an effective bacterial seal, regardless of mechanical cycling.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 48-53 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.8.7

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Use of biostimulants in the development and productivity of soybean

Lara Caroline Alves de Oliveira, Rubens Vieira Maia, Samiele Camargo de Oliveira Domingues, Marco Antonio Camillo de Carvalho, Oscar Mitsuo Yamashita, Reginaldo de Oliveira, Priscila Porfírio Gonçalves

Abstract: Soybean cultivation has been cultivated throughout the country, with significant increases in productivity due to technological and scientific advances in the agricultural sector, and one of these advances is the use of biostimulants, which has shown positive effects on plant physiology and productivity. Thus, it is believed that, as a hypothesis, the treatment of soybean seeds with biostimulants based on hormones and micronutrients have a positive effect on the development capacity of plants and increase in the production of this crop. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the use of biostimulants in the treatment of seeds, under the vegetative and productive components of the soybean cultivar Monsoy 8766 RR. The biostimulant used in the experiment was Stimulate®, composed of plant hormones kinetin, gibberellic acid and indolebutyric acid, and the mixed mineral fertilizer used was the GeoRaiz® Leg, composed of micronutrients of cobalt and molybdenum. The experimental design was completely randomized in the 5 x 2 factorial scheme, where the treatments consisted of a combination of five doses of Stimulate® stimulant (0, 0.35, 0.75, 1.10 and 1.50 L ha-1) in the presence and absence of mixed mineral fertilizer Georaiz® Leg at the dosage of 1.50 mL per liter, with 4 replicates, totaling 40 sample units. The biostimulant had a significant effect on the number of pods, because when the dose increased, there was a decrease in the pods in 37.31%. For the use of the Georaiz® Leg, there was no difference between its levels for the evaluated variables. Thus, it was concluded that the application of biostimulants in the treatment of seeds did not significantly influence the productive characteristics of the tested soybean cultivar.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 54-59 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.8.8

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Prevalence of Fungi Associated with Rice Leaf Spot in the Main Rice-Growing Areas in Paraguay

Lidia Quintana, Susana Gutiérrez, Aldo Ortiz

Abstract: The extensive monoculture of improved rice varieties, together with more intensive management practices in the last decade, has increased crop yields but also increased the severity of rice diseases in Paraguay. Due to scarce national information on this topic, a research work was carried out at the Plant Pathology Laboratory of the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences at University of Itapúa. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of fungal species associated with rice leaf spot on the main rice-growing area of the country in the years 2016 and 2017. Samples of rice plants with symptoms of leaf spots were collected from commercial fields of Itapúa, Misiones, Caazapá and Ñeembucú departments and examined under a stereoscope and subsequently isolated in Potato Dextrosa Agar culture media during 10 days to obtain a pure culture. For identification of fungal species, taxonomic keys and disease identification manuals were used. Morphological structures of fungus were performed using stereoscopic and optical microscopy (400x) and each leaf sample was considered to be infected with the presence of the fructification structures of the fungi. Six fungal species associated with symptoms of rice leaves spot were identified in this research work: Alternaria padwickii, Bipolaris oryzae Microdochium oryzae, Curvularia spp, Pyricularia oryzae and Cercospora janseana. In both years, 2016 and 2017 B. oryzae showed the highest average mean incidence. A. padwickii was the most prevalent fungus in Itapúa department in the year 2016 and B. oryzae at Ñeembucú department in 2017.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 60-63 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.8.9

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Measurement and Identification Source Characteristic of VOCs in Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate of Thailand using Multivariate Analysis Technique

Jatupat Mekparyup and Kidakan Saithanu

Abstract: Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate is the hub of various manufacturing factories so nowadays it is confronted with inevitably critical problem of air pollution particularly the VOCs. The yearly average concentrations of VOCs were then measured from 2007-2015 at monitoring stations of Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate analyzed by multivariate analysis technique; FA and CA. FA was applied to identify and quantify the source contribution of VOCs. Clustering of monitoring stations with CA was investigated to determine physical patterns of monitoring stations considered from VOCs emission. FA indicated 3 significantly major VOCs emission sources impacted the air quality in Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate; industrial process dominated with 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,3-butadiene, dichloromethane and trichloroethylene (38.19%), activity in household contributed to tetrachloroethylene and chloroform (19.37%), mobile and non-mobile exhaust accounted for benzene and vinyl chloride (14.84%). CA clearly separated patterns of monitoring stations into 3 clusters. Cluster 1 exhibited rather small concentrations of VOCs in S1, S2, S3, S4 and S6. S7 was in cluster 2 demonstrated medium concentrations of VOCs while S5 Community presented large concentrations of VOCs was located in cluster 3.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 64-68 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.8.10

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Educational technology to guide the organ donation process: a validation study

Bruna Feitosa Pinto, Bianca Nascimento de Matos, Tássio Ricardo Martins da Costa, Sávio Felipe Dias Santos, Márcio Almeida Lins, Edileuza Nunes Lima, Horácio Pires Medeiros, Rosilene Ferreira de Sousa, John Lucas da Silva Almeida, Gabriela de Nazaré e Silva Dias, Leticia Almeida de Assunção, Isis Ataide da Silva, Henrique Calixto Santos da Silva, Suelen Gaia Epifane, Benedita Leida Martins Rodrigues, Raynara Bandeira da Silva, Ana Paula Rezendes de Oliveira, Paula Emannuele Santos do Amaral, Flávia Moraes Pacheco da Silva, Anne Caroline Gonçalves Lima, Aline Presley de Carvalho Teles, Daniele Rodrigues Silva, Luziana Barros Correia, Antônia Margareth Moita Sá, Maicon de Araujo Nogueira

Abstract: This research aims to elaborate and validate a comic book that should be used to mediate the knowledge of the population about the process of organ and tissue donation. It is a validation study of an educational technology, for which 15 judges participated among health professionals and other areas. These judges answered three sets of questions, consisting of 22 questions, based on the Likert scale. For the analysis of the answers, we use a technique known as Delphi that is based on a methodology with the purpose of directing and comparing the judgments of experts in a given event. Data from this quantitative study were collected between January and October 2017 at the Center for Notification, Collection and Distribution of Organs and Tissues (CNCDO), installed in the Metropolitan Hospital of Emergency and Emergency (HMUE) in the north of Brazil. The judges judged the subjects related to the objectives, structure and organization and relevance of the educational technology, the results were favorable to the validation of the comics, since the percentages of agreement were superior to the required minimum of 80%, being between 93% and 100%. Therefore, the comic is a statistically valid instrument to be used among the population, according to the answers of the expert judges. In view of this, we have identified that this technology is valid to educate the population about the importance of donating organs and tissues, since comics are part of the daily life of many generations in Brazil and in the world, this fact generates interest of the population to read and to practice the information contained in this technology. The perspective, therefore, is that the technology makes it possible to provide efficient educational information, contributing to the construction of a new donation culture. In addition, we hope to contribute to this technology being used by many education and health professionals in order to improve donation rates in Brazil and worldwide.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 69-75 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.8.11

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Regional Hydro-geophysical Study of the Groundwater potentials of the Imo River Basin Southeastern Nigeria using Surficial Resistivity Data

Terhemba Theophilus Emberga., Alexander Iheanyichukwu Opara., Samuel Okechukwu Onyekuru., Ibe Alexander Omenikolo., Onwe Rock Nkpuma and Eluwa, Ndidiamaka Nchedo

Abstract: The Imo River Basin lies between Latitudes 4° 38'N and 6° 01'N and between Longitudes 6° 53'E and 7° 32'E and covers an area of about 9100 km2.The litho-stratigraphic units within the study area include the Ajali, Nsukka, Imo Shale, Ameki, Ogwasi and Benin Formations. Regional hydro-geophysical evaluation of groundwater potentials in Imo River Basin has been carried out with the objective of delineating the aquifer units in the area of study. A total of five hundred and sixty-nine (569) Vertical Electrical soundings (VES) were carried out using the ABEMTM Terrameter (SAS) 4000.The VES data were acquired using the Schlumberger electrode configuration with a maximum current electrode spacing of 1000m. Out of the 569 VES data, twenty (20) parametric soundings were done at the vicinity of existing boreholes for correlative and quality control purposes. The acquired VES data were processed using the 1-D WINRESISTTM computer iterative software. Geo-electric curve types interpreted from the study area revealed a predominance of the AKH-type with about 3-10 geo-electric layers identified from the various formations. The mean values of aquifer resistivity and conductivity are 1963.2Ωm and 0.00186sm-1respectively with the aquifer materials mainly made up silt, sand and coarse sandstones. Similarly, the mean depth to the aquifers across the study area is 115.5 m while the mean aquifer thickness is 39.8 m. The findings of this result revealed that the shale/clay across the entire area increased with depth. In addition, the aquifer potentials of the study area were revealed to be variable with the aquifer type, nature and characteristics generally controlled by the underlying geology. It was therefore concluded that the southern part of the study area has a high aquifer potential when compared to the northern part. In conclusion, the Benin Formation was delineated as the formation with the highest aquifer potentials in the study area. It is therefore recommended that a detailed groundwater exploration should be carried out before siting a borehole in the study area.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 76-94 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.8.12

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Application of the Rules of Corporate Governance on Accounting Disclosure and Quality of Financial Reports in Commercial banks in Khartoum Stock Exchange

Elzain Omer Elzain

Abstract: The primary objective of this study is to illustrate the extend of how far are Sudanese commercial banks listed at Khartoum Stock Markets obliged to the principles of good governance. It also aims to investigate the implications of the quality of accounting information implemented by good governance upon the operation of Khartoum Stock Market. The study followed an analytical descriptive methodology on data analysis and using the (SPSS) on testing the hypotheses. The sample of study consists of some Sudanese commercial banks which operate its shares in Khartoum Stock Market. About (48) questionnaire were distributed, (40) were collected for the study. The study reached a number of results, such as: the implementation of good governance assists the accounting systems operating at the commercial banks to prepare objective and measurable accounting information. In addition to that, the quality of accounting information achieved by the implementation of good governance has contributed to increase the movement of shares in Khartoum Stock Market. The study concludes some recommendations, such as: it is necessary for the commercial banks operating at Khartoum Stock Market to establish a department or a special unit for principles of good governance. Board of Director of commercial banks operating at Khartoum Stock Market are urged to adopt a follow-up an effective monitoring system that ensures commitment with the principles of good governance.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 95-103 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.8.13
Original paper AENSI Publications

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Removal of Iron and Manganese from Groundwater by Adsorption on Agricultural Residues and Natural Waste Materials

Ahmed M. Abo-Elmagd, Badr El-Din E. Hegazy and Ahmed Y. Bakry

Abstract: Most of Egyptian villages depend on the ground water as a main potable water source. Iron and manganese in groundwater make farmers lose their trust in the quality of water in general, because of its appearance which looks like a muddy water. It was needed to find a local, cheap, common and easy to build filter. This study was carried out in two phases, to evaluate the effect of natural waste materials and agricultural residues on removing Iron and manganese from groundwater. In first phase, Rice husk, Rice straw and pottery were used as filter medias. Rates of filtration were ranged from 185 to 690 m3/m2/d. It was found that; using of rice husk, rice straw and Pottery at rate 185 m3/m2/d reduced Iron concentration from 1.5 mg/L to zero, zero and 0.05 mg/L respectively, and also reduced manganese concentration from 2 mg/L to zero, 0.05 and 0.11 mg/L respectively. After 6 filtration hours the iron removal efficiency reduced by 8%, 10% and 13.3% for Rice husk, Rice straw and pottery respectively. Also after 1 filtration at 690 m3/m2/d the iron removal efficiency reduced by 12.6%, 12.2% and 15.6% for Rice husk, Rice straw and pottery respectively. So, during the second phase, a gradual increase in iron and manganese concentrations was done to assess the filtration efficacy under high loads and to predict the filter saturation time. The experiments also studied the effect of filter media on turbidity and total dissolved salts.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 104-111 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.8.14

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The Primary Sex Organs Development Comparison of Tiger Grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus and Coral Trout, Plectropomus leopardus

Apri I. Supii, Diana Arifati, Maheno Sri Widodo, Yuni Kilawati, Ahmad Muzaki

Abstract: Grouper is one of the marine fish commodities which have economic value and often found in Indonesia. A change in sex from females to males after reaching a certain age and size make these fish belong to the protoginous hermaphrodite group. The purpose of this study was to provide a described comparison of the primary sex organ differentiation phase in tiger grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (species A) and coral trout, Plectropomus leopardus (species B). Undifferentiated phase was found in 20-35 days after hatching for both species A and species B, characterized by the histological representation of germ cell groups surrounded by somatic cells. The differentiated phase was characterized by the somatic cell division, especially at the end of the somatic cell that made the somatic cell become extended. The differentiated phase was found in 40-50 days after hatching for species A and species B. Along with the increasing days, 55-60 days after hatching for species A and Species B, the extension of both ends of the somatic tissue met each other and formed ovarian cavity. The presence of oogonia in the ovary was found in fish 60 days after hatching for both species. Oogonia frequently increased in number and size in the fish above 60 days for both species. To sum up, the differentiation process of primary sex organs in tiger grouper and coral trout did not show significant differences.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 112-117 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.8.15

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The De-politicization of Internet Literature in China

Ruixia Han, Shaohua Huang

Abstract: When compared to the influence of internet collective action on politics in China, China’s Internet literature is considered to be depoliticized. But is this really the case? This article analyzes the reasons for the “depoliticization” of Internet literature in China from the perspective of government regulation of the Internet, the operational mechanisms of internet literature, and the tastes of readers. In addition, based on the political attributes found in internet literature texts, the multiple ways in which politics is embedded in Internet literature, and the ways in which hyperlinks in Internet literature texts generate attention toward political issues, the article argues that Internet literature has not been completely depoliticized. Finally, the article shows that the lack of explicit political content of Internet literature is reflected in how it addresses the increased diversity and fragmentation of social consciousness, its pursuit of self-awareness, and its avoidance of political issues, reflecting a “realistic” attitude towards politics in China’s current social milieu, and showing that “literature” and “politics” cannot be truly separated

[ FULL TEXT PDF 118-124 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.8.16

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Characterization of Upper Cretaceous Sediments in Parts of Afikpo Area, Afikpo Syncline, Southeastern Nigeria

Samuel Okechukwu Onyekuru., Kelechi Chidinma Nwachukwu., Kelechi Denis Opara, Ikoro, Diugo Okereke, Onunkwo-Akunne, Austine and Nwachukwu, Helen-Gloria

Abstract: Lithostratigraphic study in parts of Afikpo area, was undertaken to reappraise and characterize sedimentary packages of the Upper Campanian – Maastrichtian periods using descriptive lithostratigraphic, sedimentologic, petrographic and paleontologic methods. The study was undertaken to give insights into the petroleum prospectivity of the area by reconstructing the paleogeographic conditions of the Afikpo sedimentary basin. Six lithofacies were analyzed to establish dominant depositional processes. The sediments of the Nkporo Group in the area, with dominant coarsening up and aggradational patterns were deposited in shallow shelf environments of deposition (EODs). The sediments of Mamu Formation have heterolithic carbonaceous mudstone and sandstone intervals suggesting brackish backshore marsh EOD. The identified gastropod (Turritella) in the sediments of Nkporo Formation indicated shallow marine conditions of about 22 m paleobathymetry where Turritella was able to burrow spires downwards into muddy sediments. The foraminiferal assemblage in the studied sediments was mainly coarsely agglutinated benthonic taxa suggesting deposition in estuarine-nearshore shallow marine EOD. Palynofacies recovered in the studied sediments are indicative of swampy conditions within a predominantly fluvial setting. The age range of the studied sediments diagnosed using palynofacies indicated Late Campanian to Late Maastrichtian age. Petrographic examination of sandstone samples showed a mineralogy dominated by quartz with minor feldspars and rock fragments and a Maturity Index in the range of 5-16, which is indicative of mineralogically mature sandstones. Provenance of the sandstones indicated sources from recycled orogen. A 3-D depositional model for the study area showed pro-delta to delta front deposits for the Nkporo Group as the sediments were deposited in shallow marine conditions during the waning periods of the Late Campanian transgression and became increasingly arenaceous and shallower during the deposition of Afikpo Sandstone deposits. An estuarine tidal delta to shallow marine conditions with intermittent paludal paleodepositional model was proposed for the Mamu Formation. The lithostratigraphic units in the study area thus have petroleum system elements deposited under conditions that could favor generation and accumulation of hydrocarbons.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 125-140 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.8.17

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Application of iron and aluminum electrodes for wastewater treatment via electrocoagulation

Rehab M. El-Hefny, Mohamed N. Ali, Mostafa E. Y. Ahmed

Abstract: The present study deals with the possibility of using iron and aluminum monopolar electrodes for raw domestic wastewater treatment under different treatment conditions. Wastewater samples were collected from Abu Rawash wastewater treatment plant, Egypt. A mini model was constructed for the treatment process. Experiments were carried out using iron and aluminum electrodes separately and for each type at different distances between electrodes (10 and 15 cm). Different factors were studied to enhance the electrocoagulation treatment process which include sedimentation period (3 and 5 h), different electrocoagulation periods (30 and 60 min), and different electrical voltages (12 and 24 V). Alum was used as a coagulant and the final effluent was disinfected with chlorine. The results showed that iron electrodes were more effective than aluminum electrodes for treatment and the distances between electrodes have played a role in the treatment process since 10 cm was more effective than 15 cm. Iron electrodes with 10 cm distance between electrodes showed the maximum removal percent of physicochemical parameters such as TSS (94.2%), COD (90.1%), TKN (89.3%), BOD (95.1%) and total phosphorus (83.3%). Alum enhanced the treatment efficiency and the final chlorinated effluent was in comparable with the local laws for reuse purposes.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 141-146 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.8.18

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