Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences

September 2019


Quantitative Fault-Seal Prediction In ‘Ikeuka’ Field, Onshore Niger Delta Nigeria

Samuel Okechukwu Onyekuru, Ikechukwu Onyema Njoku, Ukamaka Nwachiani Nwigbo, Diugo Ikoro Okereke, Sabinus Ibeneme Ikechukwu

Abstract Studies have indicated the preponderance of dry holes and abandonment of several wells arising from very complex reservoir geometries and other characteristics relating to compartmentalization as a result of the presence of faults in a field. The main objective of this study is the reduction of uncertainties associated with hydrocarbon exploration by a quantitative interpretation of the sealing properties of faults in ‘Ikeuka’ Field so as to enhance hydrocarbon recovery. The study was conducted using well logs and 3D seismic data which respectively correlated reservoirs across the field in order to define the areal extent within which analyses were conducted and fault-dependent traps determined for the analysis of sealing integrity. Depth converted surfaces were subjected to structural closure interpretation which, among other things, involved fault analysis and the determination of Shale Gouge Ratio (SGR) using the Petrel software environment. Four horizons labelled C, D, F and G were mapped. Horizon C has two separate fault-dependent closures with an average SGR of 35 %. Fault surface at horizon F has moderate seal with an average SGR of 40 % despite reservoir on reservoir juxtaposition. At horizon G, the fault surface has poor seal with average SGR of 33 %. The thickness and lateral extent of the overlying shale units for each of the studied reservoirs showed characteristics of good top seals. In conclusion, the analysed fault surface in ‘Ikeuka’ Field shows a variation in sealing potential, this indicates that the seal could still impede fluid flow but may leak at some weak points. Fault seal analysis of ‘Ikeuka field’ has therefore, provided data that will guide in making informed decision on well planning and field development in order to maximize recovery and reduce risks associated with fault-related hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation in the Niger Delta.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-18 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.9.1


Sludge digester upset and recovery: modeling, monitoring, controlling and self curing

Ahmed M. Abou Elmagd

Abstract The aim of sludge stabilization is to reduce odor and putrescence problems as well as the risk of pathogenic organisms. Digesting sludge is the most effective way to stabilize sludge. The problem is that the high sensitivity to environmental conditions, especially the pH, causes many sludge digesters to stop working and waste a lot of money in addition to environmental damage. This study was conducted to automatically monitor, control and recover anaerobic digestion without any human action. A bench-scale model was conducted to study the digester's response to organic overloading cases and also to study its response to recovery steps, aiming to apply these steps through programming an Arduino code. During the first run, the organic loading rate (OLR) was increased 1.5 times which lead to a little decrease in the PH, so the recovery was done by only suspension of the sludge feeding. During run 2, the OLR increased 4 times to reduce the PH below 6, so the recovery was done by adding 3 doses of lime (27.1 ml of 5% conc., each) with stopping the sludge feeding, until the PH became about 6.4, then 2 doses of lime, 13.55 ml of 5% conc., combined with 10.2 ml of 5% Soda Ash solution were added with continuation of feeding suspension. Using the results of the Bench scale model, the Arduino code was programmed, and the pilot scale model was constructed with a pH sensor, temperature sensor, methane concentration sensor, feed pump, lime pump and soda ash pump. The OLR was increased by 6 times, with pumps control was disabled, until the pH dropped below 6 then, automatic control by Arduino was allowed until the situation was treated and recovered. Results and observations were recorded and analyzed.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 19-33 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.9.2


Application of Blockchain Technology for Secure Data Transactions in Organizations

Abeer AlSereidia, Khalid Almarrib

Abstract The application of Blockchain technology in organization is continuously gaining momentum. Yet, minimal attention has been directed to the application of the Blockchain technology for secure data transaction. The study will investigate how Blockchain can be used for secure and private data transaction across organizations This is a qualitative phenomenological study. Data collection was conducted through purposive sampling g the targeted staff of five hospitals in Dubai that apply the Blockchain technology in service delivery and interviewing them. Data was collected through audio recording of the responses from participants, transcribing them and recording the results in a table. Discussion of results/qualitative analysis was conducted through reference to the interviewee responses and discussing their implication The study findings shed more light on the application of Blockchain technology in ensuring securing the shared data and ensuring that authorized people do not get access. Other aspects that the project identifies include core concepts of Blockchain technology and its organizational application with emphasis on secure data transaction/information sharing, specific problems that organizations can apply block-chain technology to resolve, and challenges of using Blockchain technology in securing data transactions in organizations.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 34-41 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.9.3


A Cost-Effective Technology-Assisted Communication for Paralyzed People using Eye Blink – An Experimental Approach

Qurban Memona, Naser Alteneijib, Mugbil El Sayedb, Mohamed Tarigb, Abdirahim Hassanb

Abstract Over decades, a number of solutions have been placed in practice to help physically challenged person to communicate with environment. The solutions refer to devices that help manage living environment such as opening a window, adjusting AC, controlling TV or turning lights off and on. One such solution is in the form of keyboard, where a care giver, for example a nurse, lets paralyzed person’s eyeball scan the keyboard to select options on it to understand his/her needs. Currently, technology-assisted communication is possible, but is limited and at a higher cost. In this research, a customized soft keyboard and cost-effective eye blink communication system are presented to connect to an electric movable bed to select a comfortable bed position for the paralyzed without help of a nurse or a care-giver. An experimental setup is built and results are presented with accuracy of 95%, and with an operational time of less than a second. It is also shown that the built system can be easily modified and extended to facilitate the paralyzed person for various other movable machines, for example, wheelchair or remotely-controlled machines in home environment, or even at driving, etc. The practical constraints are also discussed.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 42-46 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.9.4


Composite Control of Linear Uncertain Systems Subject to Uncertainties

Hamid Reza Shafei a, Mohammad Ali Tofighb, Mohsen Bahramia, M Jafar Sadighb

Abstract In this paper, a hybrid control scheme is designed to control an uncertain linear system subject to uncertainties and time-varying parameters. In this regard, a sliding mode control is considered to tackle uncertainties, while an optimal control scheme (Linear Quadratic Regulation) is designed to obtain the minimum control effort. In this approach, the upper bound of the uncertainties will be estimated with an adaptive law, which is derived by a proper Lyapunov function. One of the advantages of this method is the reduction of the computation process. The bound of uncertainty should not be known a priori to design OSMC, which can be known as the great merit of this novel approach. The efficiency of this novel method will be shown on a linear system in the presence of uncertainties. By comparison the simulation results of this method with SMC, it can be clearly demonstrated that it can control the linear systems not only robustly but also optimally.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 47-53 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.9.5


Actors and Creators: Analyzing the roles played by various stakeholders in exploratory projects in Multinational Companies

Khalil Oudaha, Khalid Almarrib

Abstract Project management which was traditionally associated with academics and professionals is now an integral part of organizational research. Novelty, execution and performance of projects are increasingly depended on contributions of research. Exploratory research is vital in organizational project management and the current study analyzes the roles of various stakeholders within its gamut. The study collected both quantitative and qualitative data from around 500 employees of 10 multinational companies, working in project management and related activities within these companies. The empirical research highlights the duration and processes of exploratory projects within the organizational working cycle across various industries.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 54-65 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.9.6


Monitoring and Remediation of Environmental Aspects of Fe-rich Soils of Bahariya Oases and their Effects on peanut Quality

Sahar Mohamed Ismail; Sherine Shehata Marid and Doaa Taha Eissa

Abstract Bahariya Oases is a natural depression located in the western desert of Egypt. The whole region is under hot arid condition. Bahariya soils are rich in Fe, which affects the color of peanut fruits and thus reduces its export value. Quantitative and qualitative monitoring of iron minerals and their chemical forms in Bahariya Oases beside of some organic and inorganic amendments to remove the Fe-red pigment from peanut pods and their validity for export were conducted. In this experiment, three inorganic treatments with three levels: gypsum (400, 500 and 600 kg/fed.), phosphogypsum (400, 500 and 600 kg/fed.), sulphur (100, 150, and 200 kg/fed.), and three organic treatments with three levels: rice husk biochar (1, 2, 3 ton/fed.), K- humate (50, 100, and 150 kg/fed.) were incorporated into the top 30 cm of soil before planting. The soil samples were collected after the peanut harvest. X-ray diffraction, visible/near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance and thermal infrared (TIR) emission spectra for defining spectrally soil important mineral phases were carried out. X-ray fluorescence spectrometer for identification of soil mineral composition was performed. Also fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and characteristics of the used amendments were conducted. The surface morphology of the rice husk biochar sample by electron microscope scanning and the Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) surface area was detected. Extractable soil-Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni and Cd were determined. Pods yield (g/100 m2) and weight of 100 pods (g) were measured. Also, a follow up the appearance of the red pigment or not in the all treatments was achieved. Total NPK contents in peanut shoot and grains and some heavy metals were determined. Data were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance adopting SAS software analysis. The results of the X-ray diffraction of soil sample revealed primarily iron minerals, goethite and tiny quantities of hematite and gangue minerals represented mainly by quartz, in addition to small quantities of halite and illite. Visible/near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance and thermal infrared (TIR) emission spectra of the soil samples indicated to dominance of crystalline Fe-oxides (hematite and goethite). Thermal Emission Spectroscopy indicated ~50% phyllosilicates (dominated by Fe-smectite), ~11% carbonate, ~11% quartz, and ~10 % Fe-oxides (combination of hematite and goethite). Also, results indicated that gypsum (600 kg/fed.), phosphogypsum (600 kg/fed.), sulphur (200 kg/fed.), RH biochar (3 ton/fed) and sugar beet industry waste (600 kg/fed) treatments exerted significant effect, while at the same time, caused increases in peanut pod quality, pod yield, 100-pod weights and absence of Fe-red color compared with the control. The applied soil amendments, except for K-humate decreased DTPA-extractable levels of Fe in the soil. Some soil amendments application under this study improved Fe-contaminated soil and reduced the potential environmental availability of soil-Fe.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 66-91 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.9.7


The influence of the external flow rates on an absorption chiller

Yuri R. Fischer, Italo S. Silvaa, José C. C. Dutraa

Abstract The variation of the nominal chiller flow rates can causes different effects in absorption chiller performance. In the present work, a thermodynamic modeling of a single effect absorption chiller was developed based on mass, energy and species balances in steady state condition to analyze the effects of the external flow rates in this chiller. The increase of the hot water flow rate or the cooling water flow rate produces better performance of the chiller. If the chilled water flow rate decreases the performance improves also. In the flow rates range analyzed of the chiller, the best performance configuration is with 120% of hot water flow rate and the cooling water flow rate, and 80 % of chilled water flow rate. Higher inlet hot water temperatures result in higher coefficient of performance (COP) and heat removed as well as lower inlet cooling water temperature.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 92-98 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.9.8


Comparative study of the effects of X-ray and electron irradiations on the optical properties of the Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (CR-39)

KH.M. Abdel Raouf, Kh.M. Hella, and A. Rashad

Abstract Recently, Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (CR-39) has a very important place at the top of the radiation detector for passive measurement, For this reason many investigation were done to improve the properties of this detector. In this investigation the energy gap of the SSNTD were calculated by measuring transmission at different wave length for ten samples, five of them were irradiated by electron at different energies while the other five samples were irradiated using X-ray at radiation part of the university hospital of Zagzig university, Zagzig, Egypt. Another one sample was used as standard sample. The transmission for all samples was measured at the National Research Center Al-Doqe, Cairo Egypt

[ FULL TEXT PDF 99-104 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.9.9


Study of Spatio - Temporal Variations of Physico - Chemical and Biotical Parameters Characterising the Quality of Ebrie Lagoon Water (Ivory Coast)

Tossou Germain, Ekou Lynda, Ekou Tchirioua

Abstract Pollution in the Ebrié lagoon in the urban area of Abidjan has increased in recent years. Antrophic activities in its watershed threaten the quality of its waters. The objective of this study is to make an inventory of the pollution level of the waters of the Ebrié lagoon in order to offer basic elements for urgent solutions. Monthly water samples were taken from the Koumassi, Vridi, Plateau, Cocody and Bingerville sites. Several parameters, namely temperature, pH, conductivity, nitrites, nitrates, phosphates, phosphates, and chlorophylls, were determined. The results show high water mineralization followed by low nutrient contents due to their assimilation for the development of phytoplantonic biomass. The average temperatures do not exceed 28°C, with pH values between 7-8. The chlorophyll-a levels, indicative of the eutrophication phenomenon, were compared with those of the evaluation grid of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), which shows that the waters of the Koumassi, Vridi and Bingerville sites are eutrophic, and those of the Plateau and Cocody sites are mesotrophic.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 105-113 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.9.10


Does Eruca Sativa Protect or Ameliorate the Rat Osteoarthritis Induced by Pantoprazol?

Noha M. Issa and Wael B. Elkholy

Abstract Background: proton pump inhibitors, the widely used drugs to treat many gastrointestinal problems that could adversely cause osteoarthritis. The eruca sativa plant has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties; moreover, it is rich in calcium and potassium. So eruca sativa seeds’ extract may protect or treat the osteoarthritis that is induced by pantoprazole. Objectives: the aim of this work was to study, for the first time, the effects of eruca sativa in the protection and treatment of rat osteoarthritis that was induced by the proton pump inhibitor; pantoprazol. Methods: sixty adult male rats were used and divided into five groups; Group I: included twenty rats and was further subdivided into two subgroups, Group II: (Eruca treated group) included ten rats, Group III: (Proton pump inhibitor group) included ten rats that received oral treatment of pantoprazole in an oral dose of 1.3 mg /kg dissolved in 1ml phosphate –buffered saline by gastric tube once daily for 4 weeks. Group IV: (Protected group) included ten rats received Eruca sativa seeds extract daily for 4 weeks and pantoprazole daily for 4 weeks started from 2nd day of the experiment. Group V (Treated group): included ten rats received pantoprazole once daily for 4 weeks followed by a daily oral dose of Eruca sativa seeds extract for 4 weeks. At the end of experiment, the rats’ knee joints were subjected to histological, immunohistochemical and morphometric analyses. Results: regarding the histological, immunohistochemical and morphometric studies; eruca sativa significantly protected the knee joint from the damaging effects of pantoprazole with non-significant improvement when it was used as a treatment. Conclusion: Eruca sativa could be considered as good protective agent againt osteoarthritis caused by proton pump inhibitor, this was owed to eruca’s pharmaceutical ingredients.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 114-121 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.9.11


From Epistemology to Structural Equation Modeling: An Essential Guide in Understanding the Principles of Research Philosophy in Selecting the Appropriate Methodology

Ahmad Saifalddin Abu-Alhaija

Abstract This paper aims to explain the research philosophy in terms of the ontological and epistemological assumptions. It explicates the principles of research designs used in developing proper research formats. The paper primarily contrasts post-positivism with constructivism paradigms in terms of philosophical beliefs, methodology, and methods. It also focuses on the key research perspectives that can assist scholars in investigating different concepts and issues. A review of the literature has been employed to provide further understandings on research philosophy and methodology. Scholars have given inadequate attention to philosophical foundations in examining the proposed research models. The study specifically argues that some researchers lack the proper understanding on the core philosophical and methodological assumptions in the social science. Researchers from all fields are also asked to identify implicitly or explicitly the philosophical assumptions of their studies in achieving research objectives. It is vital to understand that there are two important ontological perspectives, namely objective ontology and subjective ontology. This will determine the researcher’s epistemology that is being used in research. More specifically, researchers use specific research epistemology based on their ontology. Post-positivism paradigm (quantitative approach) is informed by objective ontology while constructivism (qualitative approach) is informed by subjective ontology. This paper argues that the selection of accurate research philosophy and design is primarily dependent on the research questions and objectives. Moreover, it concludes that researchers can use either CB-SEM or VB-SEM based on the research orientation (confirming vs predicting). Additional suggestions and directions are clearly provided. It is hoped that the propositions provided in the study would inspire future researchers in emerging efficient research models.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 122-128 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.9.12