Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
        
   


February 2020

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Test membership in quartet Tago galaxy groups

Sabry A. Mohamed

Abstract Groups of galaxies are small number of galaxies in a diameter less than 2 Mpc. It’s providing good laboratories for studying the interaction between individual galaxies and their environment. Because most selection criteria depend on the separation distance between a center of the group and the individual, the projection effect is very serious problems that found in the definition of groups which causes many errors in identifying the members within each group. The aim of this paper is to determine the reality membership in each group by applying specific selection criteria depends on astrophysical properties and applying cluster analysis method too. The data sample consists of 7872 quartet groups with total number of 31488 galaxies taken from final release of the two-degree field galaxy redshift survey (2dFGRS). The results showed that 821 groups of galaxies have one member have different astrophysical parameters vary from other members in the same group and should be discarded from the catalog. The common astrophysical properties such as centroid coordinates, mean redshift, group’s radial velocity, group’s distance and group’s combined magnitude in these groups will be changed after excluding these discordant members.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-12 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2020.14.2.1

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Productivity per area and world production of rice: An analysis of its determinants using a simultaneous equation model

Everton Anger Cavalheiro, Roberta Hoffmann Machado, Regis Augusto Ely

Abstract Rice is one of the most important cereal crops in the world, rice products are staple foods, especially in Asian countries, where most of them are made from rice flour. But, rice is not only the staple crop of the world, it is also a political crop. Thus, realizing the importance of rice to the world, this paper measures the contribution of productivity per area in the world production of rice and studies the determinants of productivity through a simultaneous equation model. To evaluate this we use data from 1961 to 2013 obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and had a proper identification strategy, which involves estimating a regression model with endogenous variables. In these types of models there is a two-way, or simultaneous, relationship between our outcome variable and some of the explanatory variables, which makes some of them endogenous. At the end of the study the results show that productivity of rice is highly depended on physical capital, human capital, and technology, supporting the classic economic growth theory (Solow, 1956; Cass, 1965; Koopmans, 1965). Our results also support the fact that the increase of productivity may come from investment in rural zone education or public policies with the aim of increasing school life expectancy in rural zones, and investment in capital for the acquisition of new equipment or the production of new technologies. So, two variables are essential to the increase of productivity: investment in the rural zone education and capital accumulation for the acquisition of new equipment and production technologies.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 13-18 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2020.14.2.2

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Allelopathy Activity in Aqueous Extract of Ascophyllum nodosum Algae on Wheat Seeds

Maira Cristina Schuster Russiano, Pedro Valério Dutra de Moraes, Carlos Guilherme dos Santos Russiano, Alberto Ricardo Stefeni Alexandre Bianchini, Rayanah Stival Svidzinski, Thiago Cacção Villa.

Abstract Wheat is a cereal of great agricultural importance, in view of its vast worldwide consumption, however, a productivity increase is welcomed by the new technological findings. The present work aimed to verify the Ascophyllum nodosum Algae effect on the germination phase in vitro of wheat seeds. The adopted experimental outlinewss the one entirely randomized, carrying out four repetitions. The treatments were the following: concentrations of 1, 2.5, 5 e 10% of algae aqueous extract and witness with distilled water. The experiment has been conducted with germitest paper containing 50 seeds of wheat per roll, under temperature of 27°C. The parts of the plant that have been evaluated were the aerial length, root length, germination percentage, vigor and average speed of germination. The averages were compared by the Tukey Test (P≤0,05), using the computerized application WinSTAT. One can realize that the aqueous extract of the algae affected negatively the assessed variables, reducing considerably as the concentration increased.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 19-21 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2020.14.2.3

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Drying methods to evaluate the quality of Eucalyptus sawn timber

Linéia Roberta Zen, Thiago Magalhães do Nascimento, Jean Henrique dos Santos, Ricardo Jorge Klitzke, Márcio Pereira da Rocha, Thiago Campos Monteiro

Abstract The difficulty of obtaining dry wood with quality is one of the major obstacles when it comes to drying wood of the Eucalyptus genus, since the species of the genus have slow drying and high propensity to the appearance of defects. Due to this, it is recommended to apply methods that combine pre-drying with conventional drying as an alternative to improve the quality of this wood. The aim of this study was to compare the final quality of Eucalyptus sawn timber submitted to two different drying methods. The drying methods used were: combined drying (air pre-drying + drying in a conventional kiln), and only conventional drying. In each of the drying processes, moisture loss and drying speed were monitored, and the defects before and after each drying (warping, cracking and collapse) were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed by using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, analyzed by means of the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s test at the probability level of 95%, and regression analysis was performed by using software R. Based on the results obtained, combined drying presented a shorter time than the conventional kiln, reducing 51% of the total drying time, which is equivalent to three days less than in the dry kiln. The drying rate in the removal of hygroscopic water between conventional and combined drying methods was higher for the combined drying, i.e., higher drying speed was obtained up to the final moisture content, about twice as high as for the conventional one. Combined drying had the lowest defect rates and highest final quality of the timber, with no collapse.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 22-30 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2020.14.2.4

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Physical-chemical characterization and bioactivity of Copper(II), Cobalt(II) and Nickl(II) complexes with 4,4,4-Trifluoro-1-(2-thienyl)-1,3-butanedione

Jasmin Suljagić, Snježana Marić, Emir Horozić, Darja Husejnagić, Merima Ibišević, Amra Džambić

Abstract The aim of this study is to synthesize, characterize and detect the potential biological activity of a complexes of selected biologically significant metals with 4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(2-thienyl)-1,3-butanedione (TTA). Spectroscopic methods were used for the structural characterization of the products. Crystal morphology was analyzed using a binocular microscope. In vitro antimicrobial activity was tested for reference strains from the ATCC collection using diffusion techniques, and antioxidant activity using DPPH and FRAP methods. The complexes show significant antimicrobial activity in vitro, which may contribute to further clinical studies of these compounds. This study did not confirm the significant effect of the complex against free radicals but highlights the potential biological significance of complexes with TTA, which should certainly be the subject of more detailed research in the coming period.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 31-35 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2020.14.2.5

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

A Generalization of Weierstrass Inequality with Some Parameters

Nizar Kh. Al-Oushousha, Rateb Al-btoushb, Moa’ath Oqielatc

Abstract: This study aims to establish new forms of the Weierstras’s inequality with some parameters. The Weierstras’s inequality is one of the most famous inequality and most useful tool in Mathematical analysis. We use principles of mathematical analysis as the principle of Mean Value Theorem, order relationship properties and other principles to find and generalized new forms of Weierstras’s inequality. We hope the results in this paper help other Interested researchers in this area of research.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 36-41 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2020.14.2.6

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


   
   
   
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------