Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences

January 2018


Evaluation of Omega-3 on lipid Profile and Biochemical Parameters on Wister Rats

Bandar H. Aloufi

Abstract: The lipid profile (total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides) is used as part of a cardiacdisease risk assessment In this research, we investigate the efficiency of Fishoil to decrease the levels of total cholesterol and proteins in Wister rats (n =60) weighing (225-250 g). Fish oil was fed for seven weeks to Wister rats. Hematological and physiological parameters were examined by automatic analyzer and the results were statistically analyzed by SPSS.12. In comparison to control rats showed highly significant decrease in values of following physiological parameters; triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, total protein. In contrast, marked increasing in the value of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. These findings indicate that diets containing Fish oil significantly improved the physiological parameters of rats. We suggest that Fish oil as part of food might improve blood parameters and increase high density lipoprotein cholesterol in rats. We further suggest that Fish oil supplementation act as antioxidant agents, and an excellent adjuvant therapy for rats.

DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.1.1


Disruptive Effects of Selected Chitin Synthesis Inhibitors on Cotton Leaf Worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.)

Ahmed Abdel- Mageed, Mohammed El-bokl, Abdel-Aziz Khidr and Rasha Said

Abstract: Spodoptera littoralis is one of the most devastating pests of cotton and other vegetables in Egypt as well as Mediterranean and middle east countries. Chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSIs) are quite distinctive in their mode of action and potentially act on the target species. The susceptibility of laboratory 2nd&4th instar larvae of cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) to CSIs (Flufenoxuron, Chlorfluazuron and Triflumuron) was evaluated. The biochemical responses of S. littoralis larvae was detected using the lc50 of each compound. Flufenoxuron exhibited high level of toxicity with low LC50 value (0.069 ppm) followed by Chlorfluazuron (1.95 ppm) and then triflumuron (75.28) for the 2nd instar larvae while, the lc50 was (0.14 ppm) for flufenoxuron followed by 0.42 ppm for chlorfluazuron and then 1661.58 ppm for triflumuron with 4thinstar larvae. Second instar was more susceptible than the older ones except with chlorfluazuron the 4th instar more susceptible than the 2nd instar. Those CSIs exhibited variations of activities for each enzyme. Both of them increased the activity of AST (Aspartate Transaminase) on the contrary they decreased the activity of ALT (Alanine Transaminase). Flufenoxuron increased the activity of both alkaline phosphatase, alpha & beta esterases, chitinase and phenol oxidase, while it decreased the activity of acid phosphatase. Chlorfluazuron increased the activity of both alpha & beta esterases, chitinase and phenol oxidase, while it decreased the activity of both acid & alkaline phosphatases. Triflumuron increased the activity of both alpha esterase, acid phosphatase, chitinase and phenol oxidase, while it decreased the activity of both beta esterase and alkaline phosphatase. So, from this study, it can be concluded that the overall effects of CSIs use, including mortality and sublethal effects in insects, can facilitate the development of truly selective insecticides that can be employed in integrated pest management strategies.

DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.1.2


Evaluation of The Feasibility and Importance of Using Statistical Analysis Models To Predict Financial Failure In The External Audit Profession

Fedaa Abd Almajid Sabbar Alaraji and Talib Ghadhban Yaseen Alalawi

Abstract: The subject of evaluating the ability of companies to continue in its activity or financial failure in the future is one of the important topics dealt with by academic and professional studies by universities and professional accounting and auditing organizations, especially after the collapses and financial failures of many international companies and the issuance of the International Auditing Standard No. (570) on the continuity of companies. our current study aims to focus the importance of using the models of predicting financial failure by the external auditor and the management of companies to evaluating the ability of these companies to continue or financial failure in the future The study has reached several conclusions, The most important is assessing the ability continuation of companies or their financial failure in the future by the external auditor and the management of companies in accordance with the guidelines of the International Auditing Standard No. (570) is necessary to avoid financial risks to companies and lead to financial failure and stop and liquidate legally, after criticisms and doubts about the usefulness and importance of the external audit profession and the research reached several recommendations , the most important Work on issuing local legislation in Iraq and Iraqi local accounting standards that require the management of Iraqi companies and external auditors in these companies to carry out the professional procedures necessary to assess the ability of these companies to continue their work or not in the future.

[FULL TEXT PDF 10-14] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.1.3


Opportunistic Cognitive Multicast Routing for Ad hoc Networks

Lavanya Shanmugavel, Madhumitha Jayaram, Bhagyaveni Marcharla Anjaneyulu

Abstract: Cognitive Radio is a potential candidate for 5G Wireless Systems. Cognitive Radio Network (CRN) supports Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) for the Opportunistic transmission of the unlicensed Secondary Users (SU). The potentiality of multi-hop transmission is now unleashed and routing performances are being improved with various algorithms and Optimization techniques for wireless Cognitive Radio Networks. The main design challenges for multicast routing in CRN is to achieve enhanced spectral utilization and maximized throughput. This paper deals with the design of Opportunistic Cognitive Multicast Routing Protocol (OCMRP) that includes three phases, Real-time Spectrum Sensing, Capacity based Channel Allocation and Least Cost Routing. Cognitive Users (SU) identifies the idle PU channels by performing real-time Spectrum Sensing using B200 GNU Radio companion and the optimum channel is chosen by SUs based on two capacity techniques namely, RCA and MCCA. However, to afford reliable communication in this channel, the operation in all layers are closely related. So CRN requires a cross-layer approach for multicast connectivity as well as for the optimization of network resources. To achieve this, a weight function has been developed using the physical layer parameters to perform Least Cost Routing through the opportunistic link. Simulation results show that the proposed OCMRP- MCCA has 9% improved PDR performance over conventional Multicasting techniques.

[FULL TEXT PDF 15-21] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.1.4


Risk Analysis on Refrigeration Unit by Approaching FMEA Model (A case study on fishing vessel)

Muhamad Zaki Latif, Yuniar Endri Priharanto and Rahmad Surya Hadi Saputra

Abstract: The existence of a refrigeration unit on a fishing vessel is necessary to maintain the quality of the capture. In operation, the refrigeration unit operates for 24 hours during fishing operations to ensure the quality of the catch is maintained. Fishing vessels utilize a refrigeration system to maintain the quality of catch by lowering the temperature of frozen storage space up to -40 0C. With a long period of operational conditions caused the reliability of its components to be reduced as time goes by the operation. Since refrigeration system is a very vital system in fishing vessel therefore appropriate maintenance measures are required to avoid system failure, reduce repair times if the failure is unavoidable and reduce risks to both refrigeration system products, systems and operators. This research will apply the use of FMEA to identify opportunities of failure on refrigeration unit on fishing vessel so as to reduce the risks and effects that occur in each mode of failure. This paper identifies the cause of failure and its effect on the refrigeration unit on board fishing vessel, furthermore, the risk analysis by scoring severity, occurrence, and detection till the critical part of the refrigeration unit can be discovered. Reduced frequency of failure or damage is always associated with precautions, while improving detection controls is an action aimed at limiting existing failures and is a temporary solution until precautions are made to address the problem. FMEA approach it can be known component of refrigeration that having highly risk and it causes. The cause of high risk occurs from the danger caused when the component in the refrigeration system fails, the high frequency failure mode and the lack of indicators that can give clues to the failure that will occur. In the mode of failure of leather seal in compressor have high severity level, but because of its emergence level is low and can be detected easily in case of failure mode hence yield conclusion of low value of RPN. Risk analysis on refrigeration unit on fishing vessel with FMEA approaches identified 4 critical components such as accumulator with RPN value 180, condenser with RPN value 144 and 128, evaporator with RPN value 135 and oil separator with RPN value 112.

[FULL TEXT PDF 22-27] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.1.5


Efficiency of Moderately Halophilic Bacillus spp. Isolated From Hypersaline Environments In Producing Levansucrase

Adnan H. Abbas, Eman H. Abed, Seham M. Mohammed

ABSTRACT: Background: Moderately halophilic bacterial strains were isolated and identified four species belong to Bacillus spp. from hypersaline environments (Sawa Lake), then determined their tolerating on nutrient agar supplemented with various concentrations of NaCl and sucrose ranges (10-200)gm/l and ability to produce a slimy mucus when grown in tryptone sucrose agar medium with sucrose (20gm/l), as carbon source. Results showed that Bacillus isolates were grown in concentrations of NaCl and sucrose up to 140gm/l and 200gm/l, respectively. Biomass value for (Saw 2) isolate was increased gradually during a fermentation media supplemented with mixture of (NaCl+Sucrose) (10-100)gm/l, after incubated for 48h at 30ºC and produced levansucrase at concentrations (1-10)gm/100ml of (NaCl+Sucrose) with activity (462.08, 463.33, 460.83, 460.83, 455.41, 453.75, 452.97, 454.58, 454.16 and 452.07)U/ml and descending in quantity of enzyme activity (439.37, 450.41, 431.66, 422.29, 381.04, 361.87, 312.29, 315, 276.25 and 251.87)U/ml when added sucrose to fermentation media more than 4gm/100ml.

[FULL TEXT PDF 28-31] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.1.6


Effect of essential oils on miceliogenic and carpogenic germination of Sclerotiniasclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary

Thayllane de Campos Siega, Caliandra Bernardi, Maristela dos Santos Rey, Cleverson Busso, Sérgio Miguel Mazaro

Abstract: Background: Sclerotiniasclerotiorum is a pathogen that causes the disease known as Sclerotiniastem rot, present in several hosts, including crops of great economic expansion, such as soybeans, beans, potatoes, tomatoes, among others. In order to deepen the knowledge of phytopathogenic biology, an important tool is the evaluation of the viability of sclerodes through myceliogenic and carpogenic germination. Objective: Thus, the objective of this work was to verify the potential of 17 essential oils on myceliogenic and carpogenic germination of S. sclerotiorum. The viability of the sclerotia was performed through the induction of myceliogenic and carpogenic germination. The experimental design was a completely randomized with four replicates and 19 levels. The data were submitted to the analysis by Scott-Knott at 5% probability of error. Results: Essential oils of Zingiberofficinale, Laurus nobilis, Artemisia vulgaris, Eucalyptus Citriodora, Thymus vulgaris, Citrus latifolia, Cyperusarticulatus, Cymbopogoncitratus, Eugenia uniflora, Schinus Terbinthifolius and Cinnamomumzeylanicum were the best to control of myceliogenic germination andall the essential oils tested were efficient in controlling the formation and germination of apothecia. Conclusion: The 17 essential oils used in this study, expressed excellent results, since they were efficient when compared to the control treatment. It is believed that the fungicide action of these essential oils can be related to its major components, not ruling out the effect of the minority, causing an aggressive stimulus in the structures of the fungus, in this way, the cells broke their homeostatic balance and underwent a regressive process that can lead to cell death.

[FULL TEXT PDF 32-36] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.1.7


Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Cyanobacteria and Their Relationship with Environmental Parameters In The Aby System Lagoon (south-eastern Ivory Coast, West Africa)

Netto Mireille Seu-Anoï, Norbert Kouakou Kouadio, Yefalan José-Mathieu Koné, Allassane Ouattara, Germain Gourène

Abstract: Background: Cyanobacteria have an important role in aquatic ecosysystems and they make up part of the planktic, metaphytic, or benthic communities, representing the base of trophic chain; they are responsible for part of primary productivity of aquatic systems and are relevant in biogeochemical cycles. Due to their capacity for photosynthesis, Cyanobacteria can rapidly become dominant in aquatic and terrestrial habitats by forming intensive blooms. These can have a strong negative effect on water quality, as certain species of Cyanobacteria are capable of producing toxins. Objective: This work aims to investigate at Cyanobacteria composition, abundance and physical and chemical factors influencing phytoplankton dynamics in the Aby lagoon system for possible biological monitoring. Results: Seasonal and spatial variability of nutrient concentrations in the Aby system were influenced by freshwater inflow from the Bia and Tanoé rivers. The decrease in the salinity gradient in Aby Lagoon, which is permanently stratified during the long dry season, increased the bottom inputs of soluble reactive phosphate and soluble reactive silicate which, in combination with good light penetration during the long dry season, enhanced phytoplankton production in the system. During the long rainy seasons, fresh water discharges into the system washed phytoplankton biomass out, preventing the development of blooms. A total of 24 taxa belonging to 3 orders, 9 families and 16 genera were recorded in the Aby lagoon system. The Cyanobacteria composition was dominated by the orders Chroococcales (42%) and Oscillatoriales (37%). During the long dry season, Oscillatoriales cells comprised >50% of the phytoplankton abundance. Redundancy analysis was applied to analyze the relationships among the variables. The results suggested that salinity and transparency were key drivers of the cyanobacterial community composition in Aby system lagoon in dry period. In addition, the concentration of nitrates and PRD in the lagoon had a profound effect on the cyanobacterial abundance as a non-limiting factor in rainy periods.
Conclusion: The results of the physical, chemical, and biological variables show that the water of the Aby Lagoon is under pollution stress.

[FULL TEXT PDF 37-44] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.1.8


Cluster Ensemble Approach for High Dimensional Data

M. Pavithra and Dr.R.M.S. Parvathi

Abstract: Data clustering is one of the essential tools for perceptive structure of a data set. It plays a crucial and initial role in machine learning, data mining and information retrieval. The intrinsic properties of the traditional algorithms intended for numerical data, can be employed to measure distance between feature vectors and cannot be directly applied for clustering of categorical data ,Wherever domain value are distinct haven’t any ordering outlined. The final data partition generated by traditional algorithms, results in incomplete information and the core ensemble information matrix presents only cluster data point relations with many entries left unknown and disgrace the quality of the resulting cluster [2]. This paper discusses one method of clustering a high dimensional dataset using dimensionality reduction and context dependency measures (CDM). First, the dataset is partitioned into a predefined number of clusters using CDM [5]. Then, context dependency measures are combined with several dimensionality reduction techniques and for each choice the data set is clustered again. The results are combined by the cluster ensemble approach. Finally, the Rand index is used to compute the extent to which the clustering of the original dataset (by CDM alone) is preserved by the cluster ensemble approach. Cluster ensembles offer a solution to challenges inherent to clustering arising from its ill-posed nature [7]. Cluster ensembles can provide robust and stable solutions by leveraging the consensus across multiple clustering results, while averaging out emergent spurious structures that arise due to the various biases to which each participating algorithm is tuned. In this paper, we address the problem of combining multiple weighted clusters which belong to different subspaces of the input space. We leverage the diversity of the input clustering’s in order to generate a consensus partition that is superior to the participating ones [9]. Since we are dealing with weighted clusters, our consensus function makes use of the weight vectors associated with the clusters. The experimental results show that our ensemble technique is capable of producing a partition that is as good as or better than the best individual clustering [10]. Experiments on three real data sets were conducted with three data generation methods and three consensus functions. The results have shown that the ensemble clustering with Fast Map projection outperformed the ensemble clustering with random sampling and random projection [2]. The proposed approach has produced higher efficient clustering with negligible overlapping. We have used iris data set for the evaluation of the proposed approach and the results shows that the proposed method has produced efficient result than others [4]. We proposed a soft feature selection procedure (called LAC) that assigns weights to features according to the local correlations of data along each dimension. Dimensions along which data are loosely correlated receive a small weight, which has the effect of elongating distances along that dimension [6].

[FULL TEXT PDF 45-53] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.1.9


Barriers Of Exclusive Breastfeeding Among Mothers Attending Will-Baby Clinic In Phc, Makkah

Ahmad Hasan M Alturkstani MD, MPH, Ahmed Mahmoud AlSaeed Alahdal MD, Sari Ibrahim Asiri MD, SBFM, Hossam Hussen Hijazy

Abstract: Exclusive breastfeeding is defined as feeding the child nothing but breast milk for the first six months. EBF confers a number of protective benefits for children and mothers. Despite the many benefits of breast feeding it has been shown that there are barriers to the practice of optimal breast feeding. Therefore this study aimed to assess barriers of exclusive breast feeding among breast feeding mothers. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted. Non randomized convenience sampling technique was used to include 150 mothers with healthy infants aged between 0-9 months. Structured interview questionnaire was designed to collect the necessary data. The main study were that the majority of mothers' housewife and multipara and not compliance with exclusive breast feeding. In addition the most common barriers to maintain exclusive breast feeding were the infants still hungry after feeding, perception of insufficient milk production, lack of support from surrounding and return to work. The study concluded that, there were many social constrains that influence mothers' exclusive breast feed their infants. Therefore this study aimed to assess barriers of exclusive breast feeding among breast feeding mothers.

[FULL TEXT PDF 54-61] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.1.10