Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
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January 2019

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The Effectiveness of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in the Emotions of Pregnant Women in Makkah, Saudi Arabia

Khalil Mohameda, Adil Bahathiqb, Narjes Degnahc, Mohamed Abdel-fattaha,d, Suzan Basunie, Al Bagir Mahdif, Hosham Kararg, Ahmad Babalghithh

Abstract The parasite causes toxoplasmosis in human and animals are Toxoplasma gondii which is found in the third of human population around the world. T. gondii is an obligate protozoan which parasitizes all warm-blooded animals including human. The effectiveness of the latent parasite to the people particularly in the personality characteristics or behaviour of latent infective people. The current study is performed to explain the effectiveness of latent toxoplasmosis in the emotions of pregnant women. A case-control study is performed to explain the effectiveness of infection by T. gondii to the emotions of pregnant women. Data was collected by using questionnaire after all subjects signed the consent form. Latent infection differentiated by using ELISA IgG and IgM. In the first dimension, the results showed the relationship between latent toxoplasmosis and feeling pessimistic about the future from the side and feel not qualified in the life from other hand (p<0.05). In dimension two, there was closed relation between latent infection and patient never offer a benefit as in previously, and also we found a correlation between the latent toxoplasmosis and not thinking in suicide (p<0.05). In the dimension three, there was an association between infections with latent toxoplasmosis and insomnia (p<0.05). The correlation between the efficiency of concentration and infected with T. gondii observed in this study (p<0.05) also, the results found there was relationship between exhausted and infection with the parasite in dimension four (p<0.05). In conclusion, the present study presented the impact of latent toxoplasmosis to the pregnant women which included feeling pessimistic about future, feeling not qualified in the life, and feeling has no benefit from her life.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-8 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.1.1
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Microencapsulation of Momordica cymbalaria (Athalakkai) fruit nanoparticle coated on cotton gauze for biomedical application

M.Mekala, M.Suba Sri and K.Suganya

Abstract Background: Nanotechnology is an inception technology to create new products with enormous potential in a wide range of applications. The green method of nanoparticle synthesis involves the use of plants and plant extracts which are easy to handle, safe and cost effective. Momordica cymbalaria belongs to Cucurbitaceae family is a versatile nutritious plant with enormous medicinal values for long time for the treatment of diabetes, rheumatism, ulcer, skin diseases and diarrhea. The fruit has lot of nutrients like vitamin, calcium, potassium, sodium, antioxidants, flavanoids, quercetin, saponin, cucurbitacins, momordicine glycosides etc. The antioxidant activity in fruits is notable because of its radical scavenging activity. Microencapsulation is a process in which tiny particles like nanoparticle were surrounded by a polymer coating to give small capsules of many useful properties. Objective: The main objective of present research work focus on synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fruit extract of Momordica cymbalaria and phytochemical analysis was studied. The developed nanoparticles were microencapsulated using gum acacia polymer, microencapsulation improves the stability of particles by preventing ingredient concentration and degradation and coated on cotton gauze. Results: The developed fruit nanoparticle production was characterized by the formation of plasmon peak by UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The interaction of functional group and bonding were confirmed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The morphological characterization which concludes the developed nanoparticle bonded with cotton fabric were analysed by SEM. Conclusion: The developed microencapsulated Momordica cymbalaria fruit nanoparticle coated cotton gauze was subjected to antimicrobial activity and it has potent biomedical application.Since it is biocompatible and eco-friendly.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 9-16 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.1.2


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Agro Industrial Waste as Source of N for the Production of Eruca sativa.

Eliene dos Reis Matos, Adriana Rodolfo Costa, Patrícia Costa Silva, Franciele de Freitas Silva, Andréia Mendes da Costa, Vitor Marques Vidal

Abstract The use of agroindustrial residues as a substrate for vegetable production has shown to be a promising alternative aiming at both environmental and economic sustainability issues. They can be obtained through waste, from various agricultural activities and are likely to be used in the organic cultivation of vegetables. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different substrates and doses of biofertilizers, on growth and productivity in arugula plants. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design, in a 4 x 3 + 1 factorial scheme, composed of four N sources from biofertilizers (cattle manure, earthworm humus, filter cake and neem pie), three doses (50, 100 and 200 kg of N ha-1) and one control (without addition of biofertilizers) with 4 replicates. The cultivar of arugula used was Folha Larga. The data were submitted to analysis of variance associated to the F test at 5% of probability, being significant the regression analysis for the dose factor of N and Tukey test at 5% of significance for comparison between the different organic compounds adopted. The filter cake and earthworm humus presented better results when compared to the Azadirachta indica compound under different N sources of biofertilizers. The Azadirachta indica composite obtained better performance than the filter cake in relation to stem diameter at doses of 50 kg ha-1 to 100 kg ha-1 of N. The best overall performances of the variables were observed in plants fertilized with manure bovine.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 17-22 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.1.3

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Calcium and Boron Apply Via Leaf On Reproductive Stages R1 and R3 in Soybean Culture

Claudia Manteli, Marcos da Rosa, Alberto Ricardo Stefeni, Rayanah Stival Svidzinski, Fernando Luiz Schneider, Claudia Regina Barbieri

Abstract Great as a source of income, soybeans are also considered to be an important source of food, so it is necessary for the maximization of productivity. Many factors affect the productivity of this crop, and nutrition is one of the most relevant, so fertilizer application in certain stages of development may be decisive for the good yield of the crop in question. The objective of this work is to evaluate the productivity and development of soybean crop with the application of different concentrations of fertilizers based on Ca and B applied through foliar stages in the reproductive stages R1 and R3. The experiment was carried out in the agricultural year 2015/2016. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks, with five replicates and four treatments, the treatments being divided by the products used: T1; T2; T3; T4. The variables evaluated were mean plant height, productivity, the height of the first pod insertion, abortion of flowers and pods and the variables of income components. Number of pods per plant, number of grains per pod, the total number of grains, total number of pods and weight of one thousand grains. When analyzing the yield components, only the variable number of grains obtained significant results with the application of calcium and boron via leaf. However, we can highlight when analyzed the number of aborted flowers the control had the highest number, thus becoming indispensable to the application of boron via foliar in stage R1, because the abortion of flowers is related to its deficiency. We conclude that the concentrations of foliar fertilizers used in this work based on calcium (Ca) and boron (B) did not influence positively on the variables, average height of the plant, productivity, height of the first pod insertion, abortion of flowers and pods, number of pods per plant, total number of grains, total number of pods and weight of one thousand grains, only the number of grains per pod yielded satisfactory results. The application of calcium and boron in the concentrations 13.4% and 1.34

[ FULL TEXT PDF 23-27 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.1.4

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A Modified Technology Acceptance Model to Analyze the Usage of Internet-Based Education Tool in Primary Schools in Libya

Mohamed Abugharsa, Gulsah Hancerliogullari Koksalmis, Umit Tokeser

Abstract This paper intends to determine the factors influencing the utilization of web-based learning system as a tool to improve and support learning process in Libyan school's classrooms. However, as many researchers have claimed that insertion of technologies in learning process must be proceeded by the user acceptance, without this effort the strategy of inclusion technologies in schools would be heavily underutilized and ultimately would fail. For that reason, a model has been produced by extending the technology acceptance model (TAM), in which four external variables, which are computer anxiety, perceived enjoyment, computer playfulness, and gender have been added to the basic TAM model. An online survey was launched to collect the data from 250 teachers, educational experts and workers in the education sector in Libya to cover the range of opinions from the different regions in Libya. The main aim of this study is to extend the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to determine the factors that affect the usage of a web-based learning system as learning and teaching tools in Libyan primary schools. The result of this study has revealed that behavioral intention has a significant positive direct effect to predict the actual use of web-based learning system. Moreover, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, computer playfulness, perceived enjoyment and attitude toward use are found to be indirect significant determinants of actual use of web-based learning system. On the other hand, computer anxiety is found to have indirect insignificant effect on actual use of web-based learning system. In terms of gender, females’ actual use of web-based learning system is higher than males’; however, it is not significant.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 28-43 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.1.5

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Effect of dexamethasone and Velvet tamarind (Dialium guineense) Fruit Pulp supplementation on maternal serum steroid concentration in Wistar rats

Etah E. Nkanu, Victoria Okon Edem, Iya Eze Bassey

Abstract Background/aim: Despite the frequent use of dexamethasone as a synthetic glucocorticoïde in humans and experimental animals, it is reported to cause relatively noticeable pregnancy related side effects like abortion/inhibition of pregnancy in some animals. This is speculated to be as a result of reproductive hormonal changes. Dialium guineense (DG), a good antioxidant that contains phenols, tannins, alkaloids, saponins, flavanoids and cardiac glycosides is reported to have anti- infammatory property. The aim of this study therefore was to determine the possible effect of dietary supplementation of Dialium guineense fruit pulp on maternal steroid androgens and some biochemical parameters in dexamethasone treated rats. Twenty five female Wistar rats were randomly assigned into five groups. The normal control group and the pregnant control received water and feed ad libitum. Group3 (pregnant rats) received 0.5mg/kg i.p of dexamethasone, Group 4 received 0.5mg/kg i.p of dexamethasone and 300mg/kg body weight of Dialium guineense fruit pulp (orally) and Group 5 received 300mg/kg body weight of Dialium guineense fruit pulp. Hormonal test was done using Pars Kits. The results showed that pregnancy was inhibited in group that received dexamethasone from the onset. Serum concentration of Estradiol (EST) and Progesterone did not change significantly across the groups. Follicle stimulating hormone was significantly (p<0.05) increased in dexzamethasone treated pregnant groups and the pregnant control(without treatment) group when compared to normal control and also dexamethasone plus Dialium guineense treated groups. Lutenizing hormone was significantly lower in the pregnant control compared to dexamethasone treated group and the dex and Dialium guineense treated groups. Progesterone concentration increased in Dexamethasone treated animals and in Dex +DG compared to pregnant control. We conclude that Dialium guineense fruit pulp is not abortifacient. It potentiates LH, FSH and testosterone secretion in pregnancy, inhibits angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) release and enhances the bioavailability of HO-1 and NO in dexamethasone- induced oxidative stress.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 44-52 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.1.6

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Environmental and multivariate analysis of Santa Bárbara stream, Brazil, contaminated with heavy metals and nutrients

Carolina Faccio Demarco, Thays França Afonso, Maurízio Silvera Quadro, Simone Pieniz, Leonardo Capeleto Andrade, Flávio Anastácio de Oliveira Camargo, Robson Andreazza

Abstract The development of the cities produces different wastes and sewage from anthropogenic activities such as urbanization, agriculture and industries. The release of many pollutants as inorganic compounds and nutrients, i.e. heavy metals, phosphorus and nitrogen, are strongly related with these activities and end up reaching the aquatic environment. The complexity of the interaction among pollutants and these environments requires amultivariate analysis approach, which can help to find the possible sources that affect the studied system by identifying relations among variables and thus help in the management of this degraded area. In this context, the aim of this study was to identify the pollutants source in a contaminated stream at Pelotas/RS, southern Brazil, using the multivariate statistical analysis. Pearson's correlation analysis was carried out to identify an interrelationship among the heavy metals and nutrients. The elements analysed wereAl, P, K, N, Ca, Mg, S, Na, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, As, Se, Co, and V. All the elements were determined by digestion in concentrated (3:1) nitric-perchloric acid and Inductively Coupled Plasma – Optical Emission Spectrometry detection, with the exception of the total N, which was determined by the Kjeldahl method. Pearson´s correlation, principal component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA) were performed aiming the identification of pollution sources. Three main probable origins of pollutants were detected: the agricultural activities, vehicular emissions and industrial sewage release at Santa Bárbara stream. Then, it could be concluded that all pollutants sources presented anthropogenic origin.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 53-63 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.1.7

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Adsorption of Phenol on Carbon Based on Cactus and Banana Peel

Tossou Germain, Ekou Lynda, Ekou Tchirioua

Abstract Water pollution from industrial discharges can have harmful effects on the environment and health. To reduce these effects, several wastewater treatment processes, particularly physicochemical processes, are used, in particular the adsorption technique. This study uses cactus coals (ERC, AUC) and banana peels (PBC) to remove phenol in aqueous solution. Experimental results of the influence of different parameters showed that adsorption increases with time and reaches equilibrium at 90 minutes. The adsorption is maximal at acidic pH and decreases from 2.93 to 1 mg / g for ERC, then from 2.27 to 1.19 mg / g for AUC and finally from 2.19 to 1 mg / g for PBC in the range of pH 2-12. These results indicate that ERC adsorbs phenol more.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 64-70 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.1.8

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Effects of Exposure to Total Particulate Matter of Cashew Nuts Shell in the Respiratory System of Mice with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Fladimir de Lima Gondim, Gilvan Ribeiro dos Santos, Daniel Silveira Serra, Rinaldo dos Santos Araújo, Mona Lisa Moura de Oliveira, Francisco Sales Ávila Cavalcante

Abstract About 3 billion people are exposed to biomass fuel smoke compared to 1.1 billion people who smoke tobacco, suggesting that exposure to biomass smoke may be the most important global risk factor for Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases COPD. Due to the increasing use of residual biomass as an energy source, there is a need to investigate the effects of exposure to total particulate matter from combustion exhaust gases from cashew nut shells (CNS) in more susceptible population groups. Thus, in the present study, we sought to investigate the effects of exposure to TPM of SNC in the Respiratory System of mice with COPD. To perform this investigation, C57black/6 mice were exposed to cigarette smoke or ambient air (CTRL group) for 60 days, and after this period the animals were submitted to 20 days of nasal instillation containing TPM (CS+TPM) or saline solution (CS). 24 h after last instillation, the animals were connected to a ventilator for small animals to perform the analyzes referring to the variables of the respiratory system mechanics. Our results demonstrated changes in all variables analyzed between the CS+TPM, CS and CTRL groups, and there was greater hyperresponsiveness in smooth muscle of the airways, demonstrating that the lung injury of animals caused by exposure to cigarette smoke is greater when associated with exposure to TMP from CNS combustion. In this way, increasing use of this biofuel in industries, craft centers and residences, can be can be harmful, especially to those with pre-existing respiratory disease.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 71-79 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.1.9

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A transformer based 60 GHz CMOS LNA for mm-wave applications

Rajendra Chikkanagouda, Cyril Prasanna Raj P

Abstract Applications in the range of 60 GHz are emerging during the last years especially in the field of millimeter-wave (mm-wave) systems for short-range wireless links. It requires low noise receiver, which needs to use high performances for reliable mm-wave technology. A CMOS Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) has been designed in 65 nm for mm-wave applications at (57-64) GHz using the technique of the transformer based cascode topology. This architecture achieves gain enhancement and input matching in cascode amplifier. The proposed method enables us to acknowledge impedance matching by exploiting a transformer. The designed LNA exhibits - 23.5 dB input matching and 4.9 dB Noise Figure (NF) at 60 GHz. Biased under 1.2V, this two-stage LNA reaches a peak gain of 26.15 dB at 54 GHz, 23.16 dB at 60 GHz and 20 dB from (57-64) GHz and S11 is less than -15 dB in the frequency range of (57-64) GHz. The power consumption of the device is 18 mW. These performances are among the best reported up to now for 60 GHz transformer based LNA.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 80-85 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.1.10

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The synergetic effect of a fungal biofilm and an adsorbent media in a fluidized bed system, on the wastewater treatment

Ahmed M. Abou Elmagd, M.S. Mahmoud

Abstract The present study aims to determine the ability of three promising materials; suspended fungal biomass, alginate beads and immobilized fungal biomass as a bio-sorbent film on alginate beads; in a Fluidized Bed System (FBS) to remove most of organic and inorganic pollutants from wastewater and also determine the ability of immobilized fungal biomass for recirculation. Wastewater was derived from Kitchener drain, Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt. This drain is characterized by a high concentration of mixed heavy metal and organic matter. This experiment was conducted in three phases using nontraditional technique in wastewater treatment. In the first phase, the suspended fungal biomass remove COD, BOD, TDS, TSS, TN, TP and total heavy metals up to 69%, 54%, 36%, 67%, 66%, 72% and 75%, respectively. . In the second phase, the alginate beads remove COD, BOD, TDS, TSS, TN, TP and total heavy metals up to 81%, 58%, 38%, 71%, 69%, 79% and 83%, respectively. In the third phase, the immobilized fungal beads remove COD, BOD, TDS, TSS, TN, TP and total heavy metals up to 85%, 76%, 42%, 79%, 73%, 80% and 92%, respectively. The results showed that the immobilization of the fungal biomass by Alginate had enhanced the bio-sorption capacity of all measured contaminants more than suspended fungus alone or alginate alone. Results also showed the efficacy of recycling of immobilized fungal biomass up to three cycles to reach the sorption capacities of COD, BOD, TDS, TSS, TN, TP and total heavy metals up to 67%, 55%, 24%, 58%, 48%, 61% and 69%, respectively in third cycle. Studies of bio-sorbent films include; SEM and FT-IR examinations indicating the advantage of using FBS immobilized fungal media as promising system for wastewater treatment.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 86-95 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.1.11

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Structure and Spatial Pattern of Vegetation in a Fragment of Atlantic Forest

Géssyca Fernanda de Sena Oliveira, Ana Lícia Patriota Feliciano, Luan Henrique Barbosa de Araújo, Anderson Oliveira de Lima, José Alberes Santos da Cunha, Adriano Castelo dos Santos

Abstract The degradation of the Atlantic Forest is a reflection of the occupation and irrational exploitation of natural resources, which resulted in a drastic reduction of vegetation cover and fragmentation of these habitats. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the species diversity, horizontal structure and spatial pattern of a fragment of Atlantic. Ten plots with dimensions of 10 m x 25 m (250 m²), were distributed in a completely random manner in the area. The data were obtained from the identification and measurement of the arboreal individuals with circumference at the breast height (Cbh) at 1.30 m of the soil > 15 cm. The total height was estimated by using a 6 m long ruler positioned near the individual to be measured. The horizontal structure was calculated based on the following phytosociological parameters: density, frequency, dominance, importance value and diversity indices (Shannon Index - H ' and Pielou Equability - J). The spatial distribution pattern of the species was analyzed for the ten of the highest absolute density observed in the phytosociological analysis of the fragment. For this, we used the MacGuinnes index. The diversity Shannon Index was 3.37 nats. ind.-1 and the Pielou equability index of 0.83. In general, the species presented an aggregate pattern of distribution in the area, with emphasis on the species Miconia prasina (Sw.) DC. and Myrcia splendens (Sw.) DC. and Byrsonima crassifolia that presented a random pattern, this information is necessary for future management and conservation actions in the region.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 96-103 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.1.12

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Polydactyly: A study of a four generation Egyptian family

Samah Mohammed Mahmoud Abozaid

Abstract Background: Polydactyly is a musculoskeletal anomaly characterized by presence of extra digit or extra digits. It may be isolated, combined or syndromic. According to anatomical site of extra digit polydactyly may be preaxial, postaxial or central. Objective: The aim of the present work is to describe pattern, type and determine the possible mode of inheritance of polydactyly in an affected Egyptian family across different generations and evaluate its variation from other populations. Patient and Methods: The extra digit of the affected members were examined by inspection to determine its site (preaxial or postaxial), laterality, affected limb and presence or absence of polysyndactyly and tested for mobility and sensation. A pedigree was drawn up and photographs were taken. Results: Examination of this family revealed nine affected members; five were males and 4 were females. Two males and one female were presented with bilateral polydactyly on both limbs. Two males were having bilateral polydactyly confined to foot. One male was presented with bilateral polydactyly of hands only. Two females show polysyndactyly. A case with preaxial type I in left foot was noted. Apart of this anomaly all living family members were clinically free. Conclusion: The present study suggests autosomal dominance pattern of polydactyly in this affected Egyptian family with high penetrance and variable gene expressivity. Polydactyly varies between different populations as it's highly heterogeneous

[ FULL TEXT PDF 104-111 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.1.13

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Forecasting Sugar Cane Yield in the Eastern Area of Thailand with ANN Technique

Jatupat Mekparyup and Kidakan Saithanu

Abstract The eastern area of Thailand effectively produced the highest sugar cane yield which was in accordance with the report of the Information Division of the Cane and Sugar Industry. Sugar cane yield also varies from year to year relying on various factors; for example, size of sugar cane cultivated area, quantity of sugar cane delivered to the chest, average sugar cane price, maximum and minimum temperature, overall rain fall, number of rainy days, maximum rainfall. Forecasting of sugar cane yield will consequently assist in determining both demand and supply for the sugar production. Forecasting sugar cane yield in the eastern area of Thailand, the artificial neural network (ANN) technique was then applied and created in both structures of the simple (MLP) and advanced (RBF) models. The study results found that the sugar cane yield in the eastern area of Thailand was capably well predicted with all models of ANN technique. Also, the best performance model of ANN technique is the simple ANN model, MLP 8-3-1, as considering from the minimum root mean square error. The ANN technique is quite a proficient strategy for forecasting sugar cane yield since it efficiently predicted the sugar cane yield in close vicinity to the real value no matter what the simple or advanced ANN models were applied. The Thai sanctioned government representative then may employ these useful findings as a supplementary guideline for planning and controlling the production of sugar cane yield in the eastern area of Thailand.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 112-116 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.1.14

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Backwater Rise Due to Bridge Piers in Curved Channels under Subcritical Flow Conditions

Amir M. Mobasher and Ahmed H. Mahmoud

Abstract The construction of bridges across rivers is challenging, as bridge piers act as obstacles to waterways and cause a narrowing of the natural channel. Therefore, it is critical to know the increase in water surface elevation due to bridge constrictions, particularly during flood events. In the past more researchers have a try to improve experimental equations based on the perception of mechanics of backwater rise. However most of the investigators have discussed the backwater rise at bridge pier located in a straight channel and no study has been discussed when bridge pier is located in a curved channel. Our study showed that, backwater rise is studied both in straight channel and in a rectangular curved channel having a central angle of 30° for subcritical flow condition, which is the type of flow that exists in most rivers. A different pier shapes were located in the straight channel, moreover in divisions 0, 15 and 30 degrees in the curved channel. This research observed that the values of backwater rise at the curved channel are bigger than those of straight channel, the maximum backwater rise occurs at section 0 degrees and the minimum occurs at section 30 degree of the curved channel.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 117-127 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.1.15

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Perinatal Discomfort and Depression on the Mother-Child Relationship

Hooman Mehrani, Abdolhassan Farhangi

Abstract Historically, the role of women was confined to some extent to being a mother and wife, with women being expected to dedicate most of their energy to these roles, and to spend most of their time taking care of the home. Nature intends that the physical and hormonal changes of pregnancy insure the growth and development not just of the baby but of the mother. The physical and emotional changes of pregnancy and, then, labor, birth, and breastfeeding play vital roles in guiding women on the journey of becoming a mother. This shift can prove to be challenging and feelings of "disconnect" can occur. Hence this paper first, discusses the occurrence of postpartum depression then the variables which predict postpartum depression and eventually the relationship between anxiety postpartum depression and parenting stress and how these variables influence the relationship styles and emotional regulation of the mother-child dyad. To do so some number of women between during their pregnancy and the first months of post-partum were selected using STAI-Y, EPDS and ICEP. The results showed that those mothers who have a lot of psychosocial risk factors have more probability to develop depressive symptoms in pregnancy and in the post-partum period.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 128-132 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.1.16

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