Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences

January 2020


Allelopathy Potential of Canola Extract on Quinoa Seeds

Maira Cristina Schuster Russiano, Pedro Valério Dutra de Moraes, Carlos Guilherme dos Santos Russiano, Alberto Ricardo Stefeni, Thiago Cacção Villa, Rayanah Stival Svidzinski, Alexandre Bianchini

Abstract The canola plant has as one of its jobs, the usage as a cover plant, although substances present in this vegetable, such as glucosinolates, are known for exerting a negative effect in the succession culture. This way, the present work aimed to evaluate the allelopathy effect of aqueous extract of canola (Brassica napus) on the quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa) in vitro; verifying the possibility of a rotation in such species. The used experimental outline was the on e entirely randomized, with four repetitions. The treatments were: concentrations of 1, 2.5, 5 and 10% of aqueous extract of canola and witness with distilled water, conducted in gerbox boxes, containing germitest paper with 25 seeds in each box, under the temperature of 25 1°C. Daily counting of the germinated seeds has been carried out in an eight-day period. At the end of this period, germination speed index, percentage of germination, vigor, average speed of germination and average time of germination were all analyzed. The data were submitted to the Lillifors normality test, not having the need for a transformation, the averages were compared by the Tukey Test (P≤0,05), through the computerized application WinSTAT®. The aqueous extract of canola affected negatively the germination variables of quinoa seeds.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-3 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2020.14.1.1


Morphological, histological and radiological study of duodenoje junal junction

Rasha R. Salem, Dalia Biram, Nesrine Mostafa El-Homosany

Abstract Various authors have studied the background behind the anatomical abnormalities of duodenum such as atresia, stenosis, and the difference in shape, but the studies concerning the presence of Duodenojejunal junction (DJJ) are rare. Few authors described this junction in detail i.e., the Duodenojejunal junction (DJJ) pressure got reduced on duodenal muscular activity whereas it got augmented on jejunal muscular activity. These results suggested possible reality and the presence of anatomical sphincter at DJJ. Methods: DJJ was studied through direct dissection of 20 cadavers whereas the specimens were histologically examined and stained with H&E stain. While the radiological examination was performed for another 10 cadaveric specimens using plain X-ray technique. Barium was injected into the pyloric canal and a tie was applied into the jejunum so that it allows only the barium is present in the duodenum, DJJ and at a few centimetres of jejenum. Transverse and longitudinal sections through DJJ were incised and stained by H&E stains. Results: DJJ was narrower and more contracted than duodenum or jejunum. It also possessed one or two depressions and covered by arterial branch that originated from superior mesenteric artery termed as ‘duodenojejunal junction artery’. DJJ was felt by touching and found to be thicker and tough than duodenum or jejunum. Its mucous membrane lining was packed into ‘DJJ rosette’. The length of DJJ among adults is in the range of 0.6–1.2 cm. The circular muscle layer was found to be clearly thickened at the junction when examined using microscope. Further, the longitudinal muscle coat was also very thick at the junction when compared with the same coat in duodenum or jejunum radiologically. DJJ was found to be narrower and constricted whereas duodenum was wide. Jejunum was similar to duodenum. Conclusion: The thickened tough circular muscle, mucosal rosette packing and narrowing and contraction at DJJ refer to the possible presence of anatomical real sphincter at DJJ which got augmented when high-pressure is applied in this area. So, the corresponding results suggest and support the study hypothesis.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 4-11 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2020.14.1.2


Efficiency of the new surface treatment modalities of the zirconia ceramic on the bond strength to adhesive resin

Tarek R. Abdelrehim, Essam A. Ezzat

Abstract Background: Dependable bonding between resin cements and high strength ceramics is difficult to attain because of their chemical inertness and lack of silica content that makes etching impractical. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different surface conditioning methods on the shear bond strength of zirconia ceramic to resin cement. Methods: Thirty-two zirconia ceramic specimens were constructed from (IPS e.max Zir CAD), and arbitrarily divided into four groups each containing eight specimens for different surface treatment methods. Group 1(NT), No treatment, and served as a control group, group 2 (SC) tribochemical silica coating using 30 μm alumina particles modified by silica and silanization (CoJet Sand system), group 3 (SB) sandblasted with 110 μm aluminum oxide, and group 4 Nd: YAG laser irradiation. A composite resin discs were made-up and bonded to the treated ceramic surfaces using resin luting agent (Panavia F 2.0) and stored for 24 hours in distilled water at 37 OC. Specimens then subjected to thermocycling for 1000 cycles between 5O C and 55O C with a 30 s dwell time. All specimens were subjected to shear bond strength test by a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute. The shear bond strength values were recorded. Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS/version 21) software. ANOVA test was used followed by Post Hoc test to detect the significant between each two groups. The level of significant was 0.05. Results: The mean shear bond strength values for the NT SC, SB, and L groups were 10.37± 0.92, 15.99 ± 2.01, 12.88 ± 0.98, and 18.87 ± 1.17 MPa respectively. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the use of Nd: YAG laser irradiation increases the bond strength of bonding resin cement to zirconia ceramics. Silica coating and salinization is an effective and reliable method to increase bond strength on zirconia ceramics. Sandblasting of zirconia ceramics alone is not effective for achieving good bond strength.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 12-16 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2020.14.1.3


Using Multivariate Analysis Technique for Physicochemical Assessment of Indigenous Rice Varieties of Southern Thailand

Jatupat Mekparyup and Kidakan Saithanu

Abstract Morphological variation of 72 indigenous rice varieties of southern Thailand was assessed with multivariate analysis technique basing on both of physical and chemical traits or known as physicochemical assessment. The 8 physical characteristics (hull color, brown rice color, brown rice shape, chalky grain, grain length, grain breadth, brown rice length and brown rice breadth) and 2 chemical properties (amylose content and elongation ratio) were evaluated for determining the typical pattern and classifying the groups of 72 Thai southern landraces of rice. The study results indicate that the grain characteristic of all rice varieties is long and the length and width of brown rice are medium. Similarly, the amylose content is medium so it produces a soft cooking. The first 4 PCs (grain length, brown rice characteristics, brown rice color and amylose content) of factor analysis explain 66.8% of the total variability. The hierarchical cluster analysis capably classifies 72 rice accessions into 2 groups depending on the derived 4 PCs. Both clusters are the same of physical characteristics but the chemical properties are distinct only in the aspect of amylose content. Additionally, the Hotelling’s T2 statistic also confirms that these 2 obtained clusters are significantly different.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 17-21 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2020.14.1.4


Biological effect of alpha-Lipoic Acid on Aflatoxicosis in Broiler chickens

Disouky Mohamed Mourad, Gehad Rashad Donia, Rasha Salah Mohamed and Hanan Saad El-Samahy

Abstract Aflatoxicosis, is still unresolved problem in poultry production caused severe economic losses due to it reduces immunity, damages different tissues, reduces carcass quality and increases susceptibility to infectious diseases, so this work aimed to determine the ability of lipoic acid (universal antioxidant) to ameliorate the harmful effects of aflatoxins in broiler chickens as alternative feed additives and to detect its effect on performance, liver & kidney function, antioxidant status andhistopathological changes. 125one-day old commercial chicks reared under strict hygienic measures and fed basal diet till 8th day of age then 5 chicks were slaughtered and their serum samples were obtained while other 120 chicks were divided into 4 equal groups (n=30),each group subdivided into 3 replicates (10 birds/replicate). Group 1: fed a basal diet (control). Group 2:lipoic acid treated, Group 3:aflatoxicated. Group 4:aflatoxicated with lipoic acid treatment. Body weight, feed intake, signs and mortality were recorded till the end of experiment. Serum samples were collected twice from each group at 14thdays post aflatoxicosis (dpa) and end of experiment, for biochemical analysis.At the end of experimentfour birds from each group were sacrified for gross and histopathological examination of Liver, kidney, intestine and heart. The results revealed no mortalities among different groups till end of experiment, aflatoxicated chickens showed inappetence and loosy fecal matter while gross investigation exhibited petichae on breast and thigh, thymus and spleen were congested &atrophied and liver congested with darkness. Both aflatoxicated and lipoic acid treated chickens revealed significant reduction of body weight from 14th dpa till the end of experiment.Biochemical analysis showed that ALT and AST at 14 dpa were significantly increased in aflatoxicated chickens while at the end of experiment, only creatinine was significantly increased in aflatoxicated chickens and decreased in lipoic acid treated group.finally,SOD, CAT and MDA of all groups exhibited non-significant difference at 14 dpa and the end of experiment. The histopathological examination showedcongestion, necrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration in liver, intestine, kidney and heart ofaflatoxicated group. On the contrary,lipoic acid reduced severity of signs, gross and histopathological changes exhibited by aflatoxins in broiler chickens and improved liver & kidney function tests, antioxidant enzymesand oxidative stress marker when used alone or added to aflatoxicated diet of broilers.So, lipoic acid should be supported to bean alternative feed additive against aflatoxicosis in broiler chickens.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 22-34 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2020.14.1.5