Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences

July 2020


Assessing the Impacts of Mega Sporting Events on Risk and Security of the Host Country: A Case of the 2022 FIFA World Cup in Qatar

Captain Eng. Khalifa Nasser K A AL-Dosari

Abstract Purpose: This study focused on exploring the potential risks and security concerns that may be associated with the event. Methodology: The study adopted a quantitative research design in which structured questionnaires were used as the primary data collection instruments. Moreover, the study relied on a sample size of 110 respondents who were randomly selected from the target population that filled and returned the questionnaires. The quantitative data obtained was analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25. Descriptive analysis was also done and visual interpretations used for summarising the data. For the hypotheses, inferential statistics were conducted using multiple regression and correlation analysis. Both of these analyses were used for examining relationships between the variables. Findings: This study shown that the upcoming 2022 FIFA world cup in Qatar would be associated with negative impacts insofar as risk and security of the country is concerned. This is with regards to the urban crime rate, risk of terrorist attacks and spectator violence from the huge number of fans attending the event. Unique contribution: The study encourages event planners to consider these risks and security concerns before developing appropriate mitigation strategies to prevent adverse outcomes. Further studies can also focus on the magnitude of individual events on specific components of the host nations. It is recommended that while planning for the upcoming event, managers and planners of the event should conduct a comprehensive risk and security assessment that will allow any potential risk factors to be identified appropriately.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-8 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2020.14.7.1


Fabrication of Ergonomics Prototype Tool Holder

Mohd H Ibrahim, Nor A Said, Ummi N Roslan, Mohd H Basir, Mohd E Awang, Aaina N Mohd A

Abstract The range of hand tool application in industries varies from simple filing tool to complex to precision-demanding task of surgical scalpels. Injuries could worsen with improper hand tool being used. Therefore, users are to provide suitable designed hand tool for works. The aim of this study is to design an ergonomic handle of flat filing tool using software and to produce prototype handle of flat filing tool using 3D printer. At various stages during this study, new simplified approaches were used to accomplish certain tasks which could be considered as reasonable approximation to standard methods. By redesign the tool handle, ergonomics injuries could possibly be reduced and drastic measure could be handled.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 9-13 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2020.14.7.2


Landfill’s Solid Waste Management: Life Cycle Assessment and Gas Potential Generation Of “Akouedo” In Abidjan

KRA Essi Kouadio Francis, KOUAKOU Adjoumani Rodrigue, KOUADIO Marc Cyril, 2AKICHI Agboué,

Abstract This work aims to propose an efficient solid waste management model for developing countries. The case of the AKOUÉDO landfill of Abidjan city is symptomatic of the bad political choices of waste management for decades. This study assesses the environmental impact of the Akouédo landfill using a life cycle assessment (LCA). The parameters determined are the global warming potential (GWP), the acidification potential (AP) and the dioxin emission potential (DEP). It is based on five waste management systems in accordance with ISO 14040-43 and Eco-indicator 99. Their evaluation shows that the combination of incineration and anaerobic digestion with energy recovery (INC_AD) is the best waste management option for global warming (GWP = 408.057.106 kgCO2eq / year) for the total mass of managed waste. However, the landfill system with energy recovery (LFGTE) is the best waste management option regarding the carcinogenic reduction potential measured by dioxin / furan emissions (0.0003475 kg / year). The addition of the combination of incineration and anaerobic digestion with energy recovery (INC_AD) is the best waste management system regarding the acidification potential of soils (PA = 205709.994kgSO2eq). From the point of view of environmental preservation, the optimal technical way of managing MSW in Abidjan would be anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic fractions, incineration of solid fuel, followed by landfilling of residues. Landfill gas production (LFG) is also estimated to determine the energy potential of the Akouédo landfill in Abidjan. The results show that the energy potential that can be obtained from the landfill over the period 2009-2032 is 6,189 GWhs. The peak energy potential was obtained in 2018 and is 554.3 GWhs. Ultimately this work shows the significant energy potential of the AKOUEDO landfill and therefore highlights the negative impact on the environment for decades due to an inappropriate choice of management model.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 14-22 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2020.14.7.3


Exploring the moderating roles of psychological capital on the relationship between organization justice, social support, workload and organizational citizenship behavior

Noraidah Hassan, Khairuddin Idris

Abstract The first idea of organizational citizenship behaviors was suggested by the Organ over 40 years ago. Since then, many researchers in various fields including management and psychology have tested the antecedent and consequences of organizational citizenship behaviors. However, organizational citizenship behaviors studies are still being conducted and tested for various factors. By reason of organizational citizenship behaviors are significant to employee productivity and organizational effectiveness. This study takes the initiative to hypothesize the psychological capital as a moderator in the relationship between organizational justice, social support, workload and organizational citizenship behaviors, which is not given much attention. There has been a limited focus on the moderation role of psychological capital in explaining organizational citizenship behaviors. Additionally, this study reviews the article that integrating five theories in elucidating psychological capital as a moderator to explain organizational citizenship behaviors. Specifically, this study aims to develop a conceptual framework to explain the role of psychological capital as a moderator in influencing the relationship between organizational justice (distributive, procedural and interactional), three types of social support consisting of organizational support, supervisor support, co-worker support work, and one negative variable namely workload towards organizational citizenship behaviors. In an effort to build this conceptual framework, the method used is to review as many recent studies as possible (2015-2020) to look at existing research trends and to see where deficiencies are still present in the equation. As a result, through the elaboration of theories and empirical studies, this study has found that the role of psychological capital is important as an exercise in empowering employees in the face of challenging work environments. This study contributes to knowledge, which may have overlooked the role of psychological capital as a moderator in explaining organizational citizenship behavior. To conclude this finding, psychological capital seems as a vital resource for individuals to cope with the work environment whether it is the supportive environment or the challenging environment to make them behave positively or organizational citizenship behaviors.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 23-32 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2020.14.7.4


Trend Analysis of Mercury Contamination in Henderson Lake, Louisiana

Anifowose, Feyisayo Aderemi Chinemelu, Ekeoma Sandra and Fagorite, Victor Inumidun

Abstract Background: Henderson Lake is an important lake due to its important role such as recreational activities and the presence of various living organisms. Because of these and its location, the inflow of pollutants is not negligible. Mercury toxicity has been, and it is still a major pollutant affecting the environment. Recently global climate change has increased its impact. Some locations are more susceptible to mercury contamination. Objective: The overall objective of this study is to establish trends for mercury levels in edible tissues of Largemouth bass, bowfin fishes and mercury in water of Lake Henderson from 1994 to 2016. Methods: Analysis was carried out using an automated instrument incorporating combustion, preconcentration by amalgamation with gold, and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), milligram quantities of wet fish tissue were analyzed directly for mercury (i.e., without acid digestion), while the pH was measured using standard pH meter. A total of 632 sample data was collected from the mercury initiative program of Louisiana department of environmental quality indicating 632 sampling points within the Lake. All statistical analyses were conducted using Microsoft Office Excel Spreadsheet (2016 Version). The trend analysis of mercury pollution of Lake Henderson, east Louisiana shows a significant reduction in mercury pollution of water and edible tissues from 1994 to 2016. Results: For the collected 15years data, the average dissolved oxygen was between 2.4 mg/L in 1995 to 7.35 mg/L in 1997.The pH of these years’ ranges from 6.3 SU in 2004 to 8.0 SU in 1997. Conductivity values range from 0.156 ms/cm in 2016 to 0.371 ms/cm in 2004 and mercury in edible tissue was 0.22 mg/L in 2008 and 2016 to 0.62 mg/L in 1995. The annual average of 0.05 μg/L for mercury in water was the same from 1994 to 2002, 0.0005 μg/L in 2006 to 0.00079 μg/L in 2005 and missing values for the year 2004 and 2016.Field measurement analyses shows pH, conductivity, and dissolved oxygen recent average annual values are within the acceptable limits of WHO and EPA water quality standards. Conclusion: There is a need for continuation of water body monitoring to be funded by sitting governments because the 7 years break in monitoring from 2009 to 2015 could have impacted the conclusion of these trend analysis due to unavailability of funding. Finally, for the sustainable management of the Lake, the remediation of mercury in fish tissues and in water can use precipitation/co-precipitation method, Absorption method, Membrane filtration and biological treatment.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 33-39 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2020.14.7.5