Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences

August 2022


Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 data fusion by Principal Components Analysis applied to the vegetation classification around power transmission lines

Hypolito Suarez Fernandez, Francisco Henrique de Oliveira, Jessica Gerente, Francisco Caruso Gomes Junior, Lucas Antonio Providelo, Guilherme Marchiori, Yang Liu

ABSTRACT: Brazil's continental dimensions combined with an overwhelmingly hydroelectric energy generation matrix puts the country's energy transmission system among the more extensive in the world. A considerable portion of this extension passes through forested areas, which represent a risk to transmission since the growth of these forest formations can interrupt the energy transmission in cases of contact or fall on the asset. Monitoring these assets by means of remote sensing is an efficient alternative to observing vegetation development. Therefore, the fusion of satellite images associated with machine learning mapping techniques can be considered an especially important resource for Electrical Energy Transmission companies in Brazil regarding energy transmission asset monitoring. Considering this universe of electrical sector action, this project investigates the potential of combining radar and multispectral images to demarcate areas with consolidated forest physiognomy. By the methodological principle, the images provided by the Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 platforms went through an experimental fusion process by the appliance of the Principal Component Analysis method (PCA), and classified by the Random Forest algorithm (RF). The result was then compared to the product classified by RF which uses only Sentinel-2 data. In conclusion, it was observed that the fusion between images allied to the classification method allowed for a significant improvement in the demarcation of vegetation targets (objects of interest). However, it must still be considered that the results can be improved in future studies – requiring a deeper scientific research in each step of the method's execution established in the research.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-14 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2022.16.8.1


Social Media Influencers and Egyptian Consumers' Purchase Intentions: A Conceptual Review

Monika Fayez, Prof. Dr. Ashraf Labib, Prof. Dr. Mohamed Abdelazim Abo El-Naga

ABSTRACT: Background: Social Media is a term that falls under the big umbrella of media. Media includes different communication tools, such as television, radio, newspapers, magazines, and the internet. The increasing power of social media in the past decade has made it a crucial part of people's lives. Not only did it change the way people interact together, but it changed the marketing concept in general. Therefore, the growing importance of social media in people's lives resulted in the appearance of social media influencers, also called SMI. Objective: This paper aims to present an overview of Social Media Influencers and how it affects consumers' purchase intention. It focuses on Egyptian consumers' context and contributes to the literature in this area. First, the research discussed the point of view of being a powerful marketing tool that is slowly being used by many companies worldwide. Next, the study discussed the origin and development of social media influencers, followed by a detailed illustration of the different social media influencers' related factors that affect consumers' purchase intention, as well as the literature for the study's independent variables of interest, meaning transfer, product match-up, and source credibility. Next, the study investigates the relationship between meaning transfer and customers' purchase intention, product match-up and purchase intention, and source credibility and customers' purchase intention. Results: A systematic overview of social media influencing marketing is discussed. Also, a proposed framework is presented as a base for future research to test the actual model in different cultural contexts. Furthermore, contributions to knowledge and recommendations for future research are presented.Conclusion: The main contribution of the research is the examination of social media influencers in the Egyptian context, highlighting the power of influencers over Egyptian consumers and how they trigger and affect their purchase intentions. A base for future research is accomplished through this research, and future recommendations are presented as well to help guide future research in the same area. Also, the research presents academic and practical implications for researchers and marketers to use for their studies and companies.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 15-21 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2022.16.8.2


Temporal and spatial variation of Groundwater level in Barnaty plain districts using GIS and RS data -Case Study: in Erbil City, Iraq

Twana A. Hamad, Mehmet Ali ÇULLU, Ali Volkan BİLGİLİ, Erhan Akça

ABSTRACT: Water is one of the most valuable resources for agricultural production and human life in arid and semi-arid climates. This study will monitor groundwater fluctuations in the Baranati area, around 500 km2 and located in the north of Erbil city, about 30 km away. The Baranati area is bounded by the Bastora river in the east and the Great Zab in the north. According to the Ministry of Agriculture, approximately 627 wells are available in the study area that the Ministry has recorded, and the agriculture ministry has permanently monitored seven wells since 2001. . In addition, the author visited 25 water wells in the study area to meet and discuss with the farmers in order to know the water levels in the area. In the study area, three metrological stations are available (Ankawa, Bastora, and Khabat). One accurate way to identify and monitor the water wells is through remote sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Baranati area, like many other areas in Iraq, has a lot of wells mostly due to population growth after 2016. Massive amounts of water, particularly groundwater, are consumed by the growing population and agricultural and industrial projects. Previously lacking well-organized urban planning systems and principles, the area has seen uncontrollable urban growth with adverse environmental impact. To classify the land use of area, the study employs three different types of satellite imagery: Landsat-8 OLI from 2013 to 2021, Worldview imagery from 2021, and Quick Bird 2006. This study looked at wells to see if the water was enough for irrigation and agriculture. In addition, to determine the causes of the decreasing groundwater level in the study area. As a result, from 2001 to 2006, the average of groundwater level was reduced to 1.85 m, and from 2006 to 2011, the groundwater level was reduced to 4.05 m. The water level decrease was reduced to 11.81 meters between 2011 and 2016, and to 24.09 meters between 2016 and 2021.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 22-34 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2022.16.8.3