Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
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July 2018


Water Resources Management Using Satellite Remote Sensing (Case study in Lake Tana and Lake Nasser)

Ali El Sagheer, Maher Amin, Mervat Refaat, Omayma Obada

Abstract: Water is the main component of the integrated and sustainable development, the expansion in various fields is linked to the ability of countries to provide the water needed for this expansion. In recent years may be caused increasing people and economic request, water supply issues are creating unprecedented pressures. Irrigate agriculture represented about 70 % of global water consumption. The economics of water use and its long-term future requires the search for alternatives and determine the amount of available water resources at the present time. Egypt and countries that share the Nile Basin show interest in studying how to determine manage and develop water resources. Managing demand is request accurate data on the water balance about the components of lakes and reservoirs and also, it is necessary for Satellite information is useful in supply a wide location extent from temporal coverage and natural resource management. Mapping using remote sensing and various traditional domain survey is provides access to extensive historical data archives for retrospective. Also In-situ hydrological measurements of reservoirs are usually not publically available. In this paper, Water balance equation and its components illustrated and focused on how open-access Satellite Remote Sensing measurements data can be used replacing field measurements. Then an assessment of TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) data with respect to rain gauge data within Lake Tana in the period from 2000 to 2002 and the result have a good performance with RMSEr about 25 mm within period of high precipitation about 500 mm in August and finally Satellite Radar Altimetry data were supported by directly than the space station Radar altitude Information based water levels with the in-situ water levels from measurements over Lake Nasser prepared from Nile Research Institute of the Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation (NRI) over three different years 1993-2000-2009 period, RMSEr equal to 0.99 m, 0.88 m and 0.46 m, respectively.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-13 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.7.1


Third-order Single-bit Sigma Delta modulator structure for an RF reception chain for a LTE network

Soumaya Azzouni, Nizar Khitouni, Med Salim Bouhlel

Abstract: The sigma delta conversion technique has been in existence for many years, but recent technological advances now make the devices practical and their use is becoming widespread. The converters have found homes in such applications as communications systems, Long Term Evolution (LTE), consumer and professional audio, industrial weight scales, and precision measurement devices. This paper presents a third-order Sigma Delta modulator for a LTE receiver. LTE is the latest Mobile Telecommunications technology being currently in development and testing phase. Sigma-Delta ADCs are currently the right choice for high bandwidth systems and require high resolution. The Continuous-time (CT) structure becomes more advantageous compared to the disceret –time (DT) due to important properties such as implicit anti-aliasing, resistive input impedance and low power operation. Simulation results reveal that peak signal to noise distortion is 69dB in Matlab simulation for 10MHz band width.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 14-18 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.7.2


Yield of Five Canola Hybrids Under Plant Densities and Chemical Dissection

Vanderson Vieira Batista, Cleverson Luiz Giacomel, Jordano Sandri da Silva, Michael Luiz Ferreira, Karine Fuschter Oligini, Paulo Fernando Adami, Rodrigo Antônio Hossa, Rodrigo Bucmaier, Ivan Carlos Zorzzi, Aljian Antônio Alban.

Abstract: BACKGROUND: There are many challenges to be overcome in order to enlarge canola cultivation in Brazil. Cultural aspects such as lack of knowledge of crop potential, logistics aspects due to the lack of companies that receive and process crop production, establishment frustrations, phytosanitary problems, lack of efficient management strategies, natural dehiscence and crop losses stand out among these challenges. Thus, optimal plant density is required to improve plant phenological traits and maximize seed yield in field crops. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the response of hybrid canola (Hyola 433, Hyola 571, Hyola 575, Hyola 61 and Hyola 50) to tree plant densities (25, 30 and 35 plants m−2) and a chemical ripening called ‘‘Clockker’’ at rates of 4 and 6 L ha-1 plus a control treatment. RESULTS: There was difference on plant density, as expected, with final plant density of 20, 26 and 32 plants m2. Treatments showed similar number of branches per plant. There was difference on the number of pods per plant between cv. Hyola 61 and Hyola 50, which had 289 and203 pods per plant respectively. Cultivars Hyola 60 and Hyola 51 showed a higher thousand grain weight (4.08 g) when compared to Hyola 433 (3.73 g).Canola cv. Hyola 50 started flowering 57 days after its emergence (DAE) (June 3, 2017), nine days after cv. Hyola 433 (May 25, 2017), which showed the shorten cycle. Hyola 51 showed the longest flowering period, with 61 days on flower and also the longest cycle, however, there was no effect of plant density on length of flowering. In general, canola hybrids spent an average of 44% of their life cycle in flower, and another 25% of the time filling seed post-flowering. There was no significant yield difference between seeding rates, with average yield among treatments of 1,847 kg ha-1. Chemical ripening showed negative influence over canola yield in relation to the control (1607 versus 2,316 kg ha-1) probably because it was applied to early on the crop cycle. CONCLUSION: Canola showed similar yield among hybrids and plant densities. Length of flowering was not affect by plant densities; however, there was difference on days to flower and days to maturity among hybrids. The use of chemical ripening 15 days before cut-windrowing negatively affected canola yield.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 19-24 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.7.3


Chromatographic Separation and Identification of Many Fatty acids and Phenolic Compounds from Flowers of Celosia cristata L. and Its Inhibitory Effect on Some Pathogenic Bacteria

Fatimah I. Sultan

Abstract: The active constituents were separated from the flowers of Celosia cristata L. using column chromatography (CC) and solvent system of (chloroform-ethanol) from (Acetone, Ethanol and also Aqueous extracts). Moreover saponification process was carried out to get liberated of many fatty acid compounds. GLC-analysis was identified of four fatty acids (Heptanoic, Octanoic, Lauric and Palmitic acids). Also, acid hydrolysis was achieved to get many free pole of phenolic compounds which were identified as (Hydroquinone, p-Hydroxybenzoic acid, Coumarin, Salicylic acid and Thymol by using HPLC analysis. Fatty acids and Phenolic compounds were confirmed by using authentic samples for comparison. The active separated compounds (fatty acids and phenolic compounds) showed different effect against the micro-organism (m.o) under study by using disc diffusion method turbidity.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 25-31 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.7.4


Hybrid Tow Feature Extraction Descriptor for Shape Pattern Recognition

Mohammed Jabbar Mohammed and Mustafa Maad Hamdi

Abstract: In this paper we show how the features are extracted from the image using two methods. Grey Level Co-Occurrence Matrix (GLCM ) and Gabor filter Where is extracted features the adoption of the main colours. Red Green, and Blue were obtained results through the collection features extracted together to get a good Features and the data set consist of 120 image . GLCM and Gabor features to describe the shape in any size or orientation. The red colour shows the higher intensity of the features in the entire images and the blue shows less intensity of the texture features.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 32-39 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.7.5


Some Biophysical Studies on the Effects of Sounds Emitted from Magnetic Resonance Imaging System: Using Mice as an Experimental Model

Ramziyah Mustafa Shaheen

Abstract: Background: Magnetic Resonance Imaging is one of the most rapidly advancing diagnostic imaging tools today. Various types of acoustic noise are produced during the operation of MR systems. The problems associated with acoustic noise for patients and healthcare workers include simple annoyance, difficulties in verbal communication, heightened anxiety, temporary hearing loss, and potential permanent hearing impairment. Acoustic noise may pose a particular hazard to specific patient groups who may be at increased risk. In this work the following materials and methods were used the actual sound arise from MRI system (closed type 1.5T) were recorded using microphone attached to laptop, then saved on mp3 device which then connected to loud speaker. The noise source intensity was adjusted to be 90, 100 and 120 dB at the loud speaker using sound level meter device. Anechoic chamber was designed and performed to insulate the sound. Illumination and ventilation were taken into account upon design. All the exposures were performed inside it. The animals used were 40 mice divided to 4 groups each of ten mice, classified as the following:1. Control group (GpA): remained in the anechoic chamber for two hours daily for a week without exposure to any noise. 2. Experimental group (GpB1): exposed to sound intensity of 120 dB for 2 hours daily for a week. 3. Experimental group (GpB2): exposed to sound intensity of its actual value 100 dB for 2 hours daily for a week. 4. Experimental group (GpB3): exposed to sound intensity of 90 dB for 2 hours daily for a week. Brain tissues disected, and devided into two portions, one portion for the dielectric measurements and the other portion was homogenized for determination of: 1. Brain superoxide dismutase activity to indicate the oxidative stress state. 2. Brain malondialdhde concentration to assess the lipid peroxidation state in brain cell membrane. Objective: This study to investigate the potential MRI sound adverse effects on some biophysical (dielectric properties) parameters of mice. Exploring there was correlation between MRI sound power and the severity of these parameters. Results: Decrease in relative permittivity may be referred to change in the cell membrane potential, change in the concentration of sodium and potassium inside and outside the cell, release of excessive water due to cell membrane disturbance. Conductivity of the material is a physical quantity that represents its free charge (the current density) induced in response to the applied electric field with unit amplitude. Conclusion: Changes in the dielectric properties (conductivity and permittivity) in all experimental groups as compared with control group, and the degree of depressed center and the maximum values of the real conductivity and permittivity depend on the noise intensities.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 40-49 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.7.6


Electronic Properties and Charge Density Transfer of MoTe2

Fareed M. Mohammed, Awatif S. Jassim, Shahad A. Shaaban, Fatimah I. Rashid

Abstract: The theoretical study to calculate Compton profiles for molybdenum dichalcogenide (MoTe2) are present in this paper by using a number of models (RFA, FE and superposition) models, the comparison between the calculated and available experimental data shows relatively an accepted agreement. To estimate the charge transfer of compound formation (Mo-x) (Te+x/2)2 the ionic model is adopted for number of arrangements, these supports transfere of 1.4 electrons from 5p shell of each (Te2) atom to 4d shell of (Mo).

[ FULL TEXT PDF 50-55 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.7.7


Microdochium oryzae Associated with Rice Leaf Scald Disease in Paraguay

Lidia Quintana, Susana Gutiérrez, Aldo Ortiz

Abstract: Rice leaf scald is characterized through the presence of different symptoms, according to the rice crop stages such as necrotic lesions in leaves and leaf sheaths and staining of glumes of rice grains. The symptom that manifests on the leaf blades is the most common and easy to recognize in field conditions. The fungus is also observed as associated with rice grains integrating the causal complex of spotting rice husks. Infected seeds and crop remains are the main source of inoculum of the disease. The disease is caused by Microdochium oryzae (Hashioka & Yokogi) Samuels & I.C. Hallet (anamorph) while in sexual state (teleomorph), it is caused by Monographella albescens (Thüm.) W.O. Parkinson, Sivan. & C. Booth. This research work was carried out at the Phytopathology Laboratory of the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences of the National University of Itapúa, Paraguay during the year 2016. The main aim is to identify the morphology of fungus associated with rice scald in Paraguay. Diseased leaf samples, with typical symptoms of rice leaf scald, were collected at reproductive stage of two rice cultivars i.e., IRGA 424 and IRGA 428, the most sown cultivars in the country, from six districts in the departments of Itapúa and Misiones. Visual macroscopic observations were made for the description of symptoms present in the affected leaves to compare with the findings of other authors. A part of the collected material was isolated and grown using filter paper method in Potato Dextrose Agar culture at favorable conditions such as 25-30°C, 12/12 hours of light and darkness for 8-10 days. The fungus colonies and size measurement of the conidia were described. The field symptoms of rice leaf scald were observed in mature leaves which included typical zoned lesions that start at the edges or tips or the leaves with oblong form with light brown halos. When the leaves mature, the lesions become enlarged and finally fuse. Colony of the fungus on culture media grows moderately fast showing white aerial mycelia or white cream-to-pink mycelia of the fungus. Conidia are moon-shaped, simple cells, occasionally two cells, thin walls and hyaline at microscopy sized between 8-13 μm long by 3-5.5 μm wide. Morphometric characteristics of the fungus identified in this study correspond to Microdochium oryzae which is associated with symptoms of rice leaf scald.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 56-58 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.7.8


Dose Measurements for Worker Used 18F-FDG

A.A. Wabdan, H.M. Yassin and M.S. El-Nagdy

Abstract: Positron Emission Tomography combined with Computed Tomography (PET/CT) which has been playing key role in medical applications and explosive growth of PET/CT scans creates health hazard real on the radiation workers. The objective of this study was to measure the radiation exposure to the medical physicists, technicians and nurses working in three Egyptian nuclear medicine institutes based on the deep equivalent dose measured by thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and the dose per exam was measured by electronic pocked dosimeter during period of study. The (Mean±SD) whole body radiation dose during six months period was (2.47±0.066, 3.24±0.128 and 1.73±0.079) mSv for the Medical physicist, technician and nurse respectively, while the (Mean±SD) dose measured per PET/CT procedure was (2.45±0.139, 3.22±0.218 and 1.69±0.11) μSv for the Medical physicist, technician and nurse respectively. This study confirmed that low levels of radiation doses are received by the medical personnel involved in 18F-FDG PET/CT procedures.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 59-62 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.7.9


Attributes that impact on the Satisfaction of Customers of Technical Services of Vehicle Dealers in Brazilian Federal District

Bruno Nunes, Alexandre Maduro-Abreu, Danny Soares

Abstract: Background: The technical assistance services of car dealerships have been increasingly demanded about customer satisfaction, being one of the decisive factors in the decision to purchase vehicles.Objective: This work aimed to identify the attributes that impact on the satisfaction of the technical assistance clients of the Brazilian Federal District car dealerships and to know how these attributes impact on the additional satisfaction gain. These objectives will be fulfilled through a qualitative study, identifying the attributes, and a quantitative study in which the Competitive Analysis of the Improvement Gaps (Kano, 1984) was applied, classifying the attributes as obligatory, indifferent, attractive and unidimensional.Results: the research results showed that the one-dimensional attributes are related mainly to price, deadline and to the structure of the car dealership, being necessary the investment in employees, comfort and convenience to provide a high performance and to meet the expectations of the customers. Required attributes are related to more technical activities, usually developed by consultants, such as knowledge and vehicle inspection. In this case, the organization must provide an expected level of performance so that it does not generate customer dissatisfaction. Lastly, the attractive attributes, proximity of the car dealership and alternative working hours, can represent a differential of the company in the service rendering.Conclusion: the research could identify factors that contribute to the satisfaction of car dealership clients through empirical research in the Brazilian Federal District, increasing the knowledge of customer satisfaction for future work.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 63-67 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.7.10


Landscape changes of the Environmental Protection Area of Iguaçu in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil

Patrícia Costa Pellizzaro, Marissa Malanski Magalhães, Letícia Peret Antunes Hardt, Carlos Hardt

Abstract: Background: Natural landscape patches are in risk of deleterious effects due to population growth and rapid urbanization process. To minimize those environments degradation, legal instruments were instituted, such as protected areas, which are defined as spaces physically bounded that are mainly designated to conservation and preservation of their natural and cultural resources. This paper studies the Environmental Protection Area (Área de Proteção Ambiental, APA) of Iguaçu, located on the shore of THE namesake river in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. Objective: Given this context, the research aims to assess landscape interferences in physic, biotic and anthropic aspects, both inside and in the surrounding of the searched region, by classifying them based on their coherence with guidelines present on plans, programs and projects directed to this conservation unit. Methods: Preliminarily, there was a bibliographic review so that it was possible to comprehend the concepts associated to the subject. Subsequently, studies were performed on the land uses regarding the years 2000 and 2017, by satellite images interpretation, as well as photographic registers and carrying out on surveys. After that, pertinent plans, programs and projects were analysed. Results: By the assessed data, it is possible to conclude that changes of uses inside the APA were less expressive when compared to the surroundings. It is also verified that irregular occupations were not appropriately controlled, as well as that there are other socioenvironmental inadequacies in the region. Nevertheless, the municipality has been creating several guidelines for these issues resolution, although disconnected to each other. Examples of such initiatives include the creation of parks and the land regularization. Conclusion: Consequently, it is concluded that the establishment of a protected natural area is not sufficient on its own for the adequate management of such spaces, being necessary implementation of specific management plan, integrated to intervention projects

[ FULL TEXT PDF 68-73 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.7.11


Mechanical Analysis of a Polyurethane for use in Dental Modeling

Ávila, Gisseli B., Dias, Sergio C., Marino, Glimaldo, Kreve, Simone and Plepis, Ana Maria G

Abstract: Background: Prosthetic rehabilitation is characterized by clinical and laboratorial phases, and the precision of dental models is an important and determining factor for the fit of dental restorations. Aim: Evaluate the high performance polyurethane resin 6470 and hardener Dt 082 (Huntsman Advanced Materials Química Brasil Ltda) loaded with 30% diatomite, for use in dental modeling. Methods and Material: Resin and hardener were manipulated in the ratio of 1:8 with the addition of a polyurethane accelerator in the proportion of 1 drop/200g of resin. The samples of pure polyurethane resin (PPR), modified with diatomite (DMPR) and gypsum type IV (Fuji Rock EP, GC) were analyzed for dimensional behavior, surface roughness Ra, and ability to copy details. Results: Tukey test (α =0,05) and variance showed that PPR or DMPR were superior to type IV gypsum for compressive strength, the diametral compression traction, abrasion wear resistance, impact and flexion three points. It could verified that the PPR or DMPR is compatible with the silicone elastomers (condensation and addition); The 30% diatomite increased surface hardness, the compressive strength and the diametral compression traction, the impact fracture strength, the three point flexural strength, and the abrasion resistance of the polyurethane resin; The DMPR presents similar dimensional behavior to type IV gypsum. The diatomite reduced the copying capacity of the polyurethane resin and increased its surface roughness, but the loaded resin showed lower surface roughness and higher copy capacity than the type IV gypsum. Conclusion: In view of the results obtained there is the feasibility of using DMPR in dental modeling.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 74-78 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.7.12


Effect of Maternal Nicotine Exposure on Circumvallate Papillae Development in Albino Rat

Hisham I. Othman, Aliaa O. Lotfy and Khaled E.N. El Haddad

Abstract: Background: Nicotine, the main ingredient in tobacco, readily crosses the placental barrier to cause deleterious effects on the health of the offspring. Objective: this study aimed to evaluate the potentially teratogenic effect of nicotine on the development of circumvallate papillae in pre and postnatal developmental periods Methodology: pregnant Albino rats were injected with nicotine hemisulfate at a dose of 1.6 mg/kg/day corresponding to the dose received during heavy smoking. Fetal tongue samples were collected at the 12th and 16th gestational days and postnatal samples were studied in newborns, at the age of 7 and 14 days of the off springs. Results: the main effects were distortion of the morphology of the papillae especially with advancing age in the postnatal stages, decrease in number of taste buds and distortion of its keratinization. Conclusion: it was concluded that the teratogenic effect of nicotine on circumvallate papillae seen as impaired development of its gustatory epithelium ensures its neurotoxic effect on peripheral nerves. The effect was long-lasting postnatally even when off springs were not subjected to nicotine.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 79-84 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.7.13


Control of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer, 1797) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) by gamma radiation

Paula Bergamin Arthur, Anna Lúcia Villavicencio, André Ricardo Machi, Rodrigo Sebastião Rossi, Valter Arthur

Abstract: The aim of the experiment was to determine the sterilizing dose from ionizing radiation by cobalt-60 to Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer, 1797)(Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in peanuts. The study was conducted in the laboratory of Radiobiology and Environment of the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture - CENA / USP at Piracicaba, SP - Brazil. Peanuts samples infested with adults of A. diaperinus with 8 treatments and 5 repetitions were used. Each repetition consisted of 20 adults, a total of 100 individuals per treatment. The samples were irradiated in doses of 0 (control), 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150 and 175 Gy, in a source of cobalt-60, Gammacell-220 type, with a rate dose of 381Gy / h. The experiment was conducted in a room with a relative of 25 ± 5 ° C temperatures and humidity of 70 ± 5%. After 50 days of irradiation process was evaluated of the number of emerged insects in each treatment. The results show that the sterilizing doses in F1 and F2 generations respectively were: 150 Gy and 125 Gy. The dose of 150 Gy of gamma radiation can be used in both generations as phytosanitary treatment to control of A. diaperinus infested peanuts.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 85-88 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.7.14


Synthesis of Iron Oxide/TiO2 with Citric Acid Nano-Composite to Remove Some Inorganic Pollutants from Kema Drain -Aswan-Egypt

Yasser Abdulhady and Yahia Gedamy

Abstract: MINPs are new nanomaterials with functional materials, which was great used in different applications in water treatment processes. This paper focuses on the preparation and characterization (structure and magnetic properties) of a novel adsorbent of magnetic iron oxide nano-particles coated with citric acid and TiO2, and their corresponding application in removing some inorganic pollutants from Kema drain – Aswan – Egypt. The characterization of the synthesized nano-composite was performed by XRD, SEM, particle size analysis and VSM, and the obtained results were discussed. The coating process of iron oxide nano-particles with citric acid and TiO2 was elucidated from XRD analysis system, which indicates that the composite is well crystallized structure. While, SEM images for the iron oxide coated with citric acid TiO2 confirms that magnetic iron oxide nano-composite are nano-fibrils and highly uniform in size with rod shape, as well as SEM image show that the TiO2 particles coat the core magnetic iron oxide nano-particles with the homogenous distribution approximately. Also, particle size analysis indicated that the smallest size of nano-particles (70nm) formed due to the heterogeneous nucleation of new nano-composite of iron oxide with TiO2 with multi-hydroxyls groups of citric acid. Finally, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) shows that the nano-composite particles have typical super-paramagnetic behavior, which is confirmed by the magnetic hysteresis loops. Also, the results showed that the synthesized nano-composite were dependent on pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time and temperature. The efficiency of iron and copper ions adsorption increases with increasing adsorbent dosage and temperature at certain limits of pH and contact time. The maximum removal percentage reached 92.85% and 85.03% for copper and iron removal, respectively, by using the magnetic iron oxide coated with citric acid and TiO2 nano-composite at pH 7, adsorbent dosage (0.1g) and temperature 300C after a contact time 35min and 25min for iron and copper, respectively.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 89-97 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.7.15


Optimal Design System and Control of Stand-Alone PV System Considering Iraq Region

Ahmed M. Betti and M.A. Mustafa Hassan

Abstract: This paper provides a study of the design for stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system to provide electricity for the purposes required for family in Iraq .the system is created on the data of solar radiation site studied as well as electric load data for the houses in the same site. proposed Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control loop and using the best techniques Perturb and Observe (P&O) Algorithm extracting maximum power from PV module under different solar irradiation, To control the process of charging battery and discharging the battery in different cases use PID control to stay the input dc voltage constant at steady state and tuning parameters was done through the use Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The proposed method is applied to generation 3.5 kW, 210 V, 50 Hz, three -phase standalone PV system. A software simulation model is developed in Matlab/Simulink.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 98-105 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.7.16


Determinants of Customer Loyalty: A Review and Future Directions

Ahmad Saifalddin Abu-Alhaija, Raja Nerina Raja Yusof, Haslinda Hashim and Nor Siah Jaharuddin

Abstract: This paper aims to provide a summary review on the existing loyalty models. It focuses on the key factors and perspectives that can assist marketing scholars and professionals in enhancing customer’s loyalty. A review of the literature has been employed to provide further understandings on customer’s loyalty and its research priorities. The findings of this paper contends that integrating cultural and religious influences into existing models would enhance customer’s loyalty. The study also argues that there are three groups of loyalty antecedents should be taken into consideration. They are 1) loyalty’s primary determinants (PD), which include, customer’s satisfaction, trust, perceived value, and perceived service quality; 2) loyalty’s secondary determinants (SD), which include, other loyalty factors based on the research nature and context; and 3) loyalty’s moral determinants (MD), which include, spiritual, cultural, and religious factors of target markets. Additional propositions and directions are also provided to create efficient loyalty models. Marketing scholars have given inadequate attention to cultural and religious influences in studying customer’s loyalty. This article is a commentary research on previous loyalty models. It is hoped that the propositions provided in the study would inspire future researchers in emerging proper and effective loyalty models.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 106-111 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.7.17


Compromise Solutions for Rough Multiple Objective Decision Making Problems

Shereen Fathy El-Feky and Tarek H.M. Abou-El-Enien

Abstract: The technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) is introduced to develop a methodology to find compromise solutions for the Multiple Objective Decision Making (MODM) Problems with Rough intervals parameters in the objective functions (RMODM) of Mixed-type. Anew algorithm is presented for the proposed TOPSIS approach for solving these types of mathematical programming problems. Also, an illustrative numerical example is solved and compared the solution of proposed algorithm with the ideal solutions.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 112-119 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.7.18


Bathymetric Survey and Characterization of the Bottom Sediment in the Public Supply Reservoir of the Municipality of Porto Nacional, Legal Amazon, State of Tocantins, Brazil

Angelo Ricardo Balduino, Diogo Pedreira Lima, Aurean de Paula Carvalho, Mariana Araújo Melo, Lucas Barbosa e Souza and Márcio Galdino dos Santos

Abstract: The reservoirs, formed by the construction of dams, act as true sediment retention basins. The sediments are particles derived from rocks or biological materials that are transported by water drains, being one of the main responsible for the modification of the terrestrial environment, involving processes of erosion, transport and deposition of particles. These processes are natural characteristics of the hydrosedimentological system, but with the human action along the banks of the reservoir, this process has intensified, becoming a huge problem that affects both the quality and volume of the water in the hydrous bodies. In this sense, the bathymetric survey was of fundamental importance for the selection of the sediment collection point, since it will be possible to determine the terrain bathymetry, liquid discharge, water velocity and water level. The objective of this work was to characterize the bottom sediment and to contribute to the management of the public supply reservoir by means of the bathymetric survey on the dam of the city of Ribeirão São João, municipality of Porto Nacional, State of Tocantins. By means of bathymetry, a data collection point was established, located near the water bed of the public supply reservoir, and were measured the area, width, water velocity, liquid discharge and sediment characterization. The study determined with the bathymetric survey the possible location where the largest accumulation of sediments will occur, according to the velocity changes, where the water flow loses its force and the sediments are deposited. It was also determined that the bottom sediment of the reservoir is mostly silty clay, which may affect the operation, as well as facilitating the chemical and physical pollution of the water, which could endanger the health of the population. The study determined these facts. Therefore, we can conclude that the results indicate that preventive, corrective and preservation measures must be adopted in the management of the reservoir to increase the water level and quality of the reservoir, and consequently we increase the time of use of this abstraction to supply the urban population of Porto Nacional – State of Tocantins.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 120-125 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.7.19


A Novel Technique for Water Hardness Removal by Using Polystyrene

Ehssan Nassef, Mohamed Mousa, Dina Elgayar and Mohamed Hussein

Abstract: Polystyrene has several uses, which it can be used as in packing materials, appliances, electrical consumers, and construction, medical and other purposes. Polystyrene wastes have several uses also, such as, the conversion of waste polystyrene into useful hydrocarbons by microwave-metal interaction pyrolysis, producing humidity sensors, removal of turbidity and hardness from waste water. The objective of this study is to provide a technique for removal of hardness from waste water by using polystyrene sulfonated waste. Polystyrene samples were converted into adsorbent by heterogeneous sulfonation. Consequently, Infra-red technique has been used to confirm the sulfonation. The modified polymer provides high purification of hard water comparable to conventional adsorbent. It was found that the best removal capacity of Ca and Mg ions is either at 60 °C for reaction time is 30 minutes or at 30°C when the time of the reaction is two hours.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 126-138 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.7.20


Detection and Evaluation of Surface Defects in Bridges by Terrestrial Laser Scanning

Ayman Elshehaby, Khaled Zaky, Farag Bastawy and Hany Abd Elmaksoud

Abstract: There are some factors that may cause bridge damages such as the heavy traffic and aggressive environmental conditions. It’s important to assess the current status of the bridge to decide on the future steps for rehabilitation. This is due to their impact on landscape where they are built to satisfy the public safety in bridge structural capacity. Despite, the actual bridge techniques demands hard works and lots of subjective visual analysis to decide the state of the bridge. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), also named as Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) is a remote sensing technique that could assist to minimize the variability of results and cover bigger areas, allowing for accurate determination of defects and precise allocation of appropriate funding. The main aim of this research is to develop an easy system to register laser remote sensing data of as-built model, with BrIM (Bridge Information Model) for constructed bridge and compare between them to detect the geometric discrepancies and defects. Mohamed Fawzy Bridge (which is located in Maadi Ring Road, Cairo, Egypt) has been selected as the scenery of this experimental investigation to approve this technique, focused on monitoring structural damages. The scanned data is used to evaluate the status of the selected bridge, its surface defects, vertical clearance, cracks length and width by using the basic software. This data is compared with its corresponding data extracted from the bridge design or drawing. The results of comparison indicate that the used equipment and technique achieved the required tasks with good accuracy.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 139-147 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.7.21


Effects of alternative dietary protein of Nigella sativa on some hematological, biochemical and immunological responses of pregnant Barki ewes

El-Hawy, A.S.; Abdalla, E. B.; Gawish, H. A.; Abdou, A. and Madany, M. Effat

Abstract: Thirty estrus synchronized pregnant Barki ewes (2.0-3.0 years old and 38.89 ± 1.02 kg average body weight) were used to investigate the effects of feeding Nigella sativa meal (NSM) as an alternative source of protein on some hematological, biochemical and immunological parameters during peripartum period. Animals were randomly assigned into three equal groups (10 each) after their conception. The first group (G1) served as control and was fed the basal diet containing 20% cotton seed meal and 6% soybean meal as a source of dietary protein, while the second group (G2) was fed diet containing13 % of NSM and 8% soybean meal. The third group (G3) was fed diet containing 25% of NSM. Blood samples were withdrawn during last month of pregnancy. Results indicated that, NSM groups had a slight higher concentration of total protein, albumin and globulin and lower concentrations of total lipids and low density lipoprotien (LDL) with non significant differences. However, cholesterol and high density lipoprotein (HDL) increased significantly in control group. ALT, AST, urea and creatinin were not affected by type of protein ration. Feeding NSM increased (P˂0.05) significantly WBCs, RBCs, Ht and MCV values. Moreover, NSM supplementation improved blood plasma immunoglobulin (IgA and IgG) and total antioxidant. In conclusion, NSM could be used as a safe alternative source of dietary protein without any adverse effects on liver and kidney functions as well as improving some immunological parameters of Barki ewes under arid conditions.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 148-154 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.7.22


SWOT Analysis: Forest Engineering Course Diagnostic Tool

Luis Fernando Fonseca Kasprzak, Ghislaine Miranda Bonduelle, Arnaud Francis Bonduelle, Umberto Klock

Abstract: A Higher Education Institution (HEI) regardless of its largest audience, must always be attentive to the needs and behaviors valued in the educational environment. SWOT analysis is the stretegic tool that was used to investigate the internal and external varients of a Forestry Engineering course of a private IES in southern Brazil. The use of the Pre-formatted script with key factors present in the institutional Development Plan and relevant to higher education aided in the collection of information during the SWOT analysis process. The comparison of the results obtained with the information contained in the course pedagogical project made it possible to reinforce its strengths and opportunities and to add others to not seen in the document in the question. The results identified the strengths of the course and which points should be improved. From this, suggestions for improvement were proposed, these being grouped by subjects, considering their affinities; Research; Teaching; Extension; Internationalization; Marketing; Marketplace; Innovation; Communication; Infrastructure; Support services and others. However it was verified that the subjects related to the market, marketing and internationalization were those that presented greater number of weaknesses and threats. Thus indicating the need for greater attention to these points. Finally, It was possible to percieve that the application of the tool in an academic environment allowed a better understanding of the needs of the course within the scenerio of higher education. In addition, Improvements were suggested for all items leveraged during the SWOT analysis of the forest engineering course.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 155-164 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.7.23


Social and environmental vulnerability of the urban dynamics of Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil

Patrícia Costa Pellizzaro, Letícia Peret Antunes Hardt, Carlos Hardt, Mariana Tanaka

Abstract: Considering the increase of violence in large urban areas in Brazil, this research aims at verifying the relationship between the environment and society vulnerability and crime rates in Curitiba, Paraná State, Brazil, as a case study. Based on the theoretical references of the present work, the environmental constraints, landscape components, and socioeconomic conditions were assessed. In this context, the relation between social-environmental vulnerability and homicide number was determined based on spatial analysis techniques, notably geographically weighted regression (GWR). The results show that this model explains 95.3% of the homicide incidence in the neighbourhoods of the city. However, when the local coefficients of determination values (R² l) are considered, this percentage is lower in central region (20.0% - 40.0%). Therefore, it is concluded that the reduction of the social and environmental vulnerability would be a determinant factor to decrease the criminality levels in Curitiba.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 165-171 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.7.24