Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences

November 2022


Key Elements of Strategic Management

Prince Chineme Nsirim

ABSTRACT: The paper examines the key elements of strategic management. The key elements of strategic management are very important to managers today because they reveal how the organization's approach to business survival could be realized. Businesses need to have the requisite skills and experience in the industry to be successful. It can be said that organizations could enhance their chances of survival in the competitive business environment by obtaining a fantastic strategic management plan. It explained the concepts of strategic management, including approaches, processes, steps, and their usefulness and merits to the business entity. It also suggested areas for management to consider when planning a management model that is result-oriented. Strategic management is all about having direction, the ability to analyze, choose, and implement, and the capability to think, be creative, and ask questions. Changes in revenue, market share, profit, and return on investment for owners are all visible. The outcome creates feedback loops that influence the internal and external business environment. The paper recommends, among others, that there should be a formulation of strategic objectives that are in agreement with the goal of the firm in order to realize their objectives and good performance.

] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2022.16.11.1


The Strengths and Weaknesses of Mine Closure and Rehabilitation Procedures in Burkina Faso (West Africa)

Michelline Marie Regina Kansole, Tog-Noma Patricia Emma Bontogho, Koï Wenceslas Kam, Abdoulaye Sambare

ABSTRACT: Background: Burkina Faso has 18 large industrial Mines in operation, including 17 gold and 1 zinc. Direct mining revenue generated for the benefit of the State budget was 274.29 billion FCFA in 2019, for a contribution of 13.13% to the GDP. Several challenges remain to be met, in particular the successful management of the rehabilitation and closure of Mines. Objective: Does Burkina Faso have an appropriate legal framework capable of ensuring good management of the rehabilitation and closure of Mines at the end of exploitation? The legal foundations of Burkina Faso's environmental policy are found in the Constitution, in laws, decrees and regulations. In the particular field of Mines and quarries, in addition to the Ministry in charge of the environment, the Ministries in charge of Mines and Finance appear as key actors at the administrative level. Other key players are mining companies and local communities. Results: Among the strengths of the legislation are the application of the “polluter pays principle”, the obligation to carry out an environmental assessment for any mining project, with prior validation of ESIAs and NIES, a transparent Rehabilitation Fund disbursement mechanism, etc. However, the legislation has some weaknesses such as the dual responsibility, the configuration of the CT/EV that is plethoric (28 members), the lack of provisions discouraging the generation of waste in Mines, the absence of landfill sites supervision, the lack of environmental policy that is specific to the mining sector, etc. Conclusion: It is necessary to work on strengthening this existing regulatory and organizational system in order to ensure a better management of the Mines environmental rehabilitation.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 9-15 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2022.16.11.2


COVID – 19 and informal workers in developing countries: the cases of Nigeria and Ethiopia

Michele Romanello

ABSTRACT: Developing countries have some characteristics that can make it difficult to implement policies to contain the spread of the virus: for example, a lack of an extensive social protection system, poor public and private infrastructure, a widely spread informal job market, and a large part of the population with a low education level. The paper aims to analyze how the two countries have tried to counter the spread of COVID-19 in the first stage of the pandemic, between April and May 2020, and whether emergency assistance has been provided to informal workers if needed. The initial hypothesis is that, during the first peak, Ethiopia performs better than Nigeria in combating the spread of the virus using public policies for informal workers. According to the results, coping with the spread of the virus had different outcomes in the two countries in the first wave. On one side, the results indicate that Ethiopia did not need to close the economy completely during the first peak of COVID-19 in the country. This is supported by the fact that, regardless of whether they worked in a formal setting or not, approximately 85% of people were able to work normally during the pandemic.This opening of the economy has led to minor assistance from the state and other institutions compared with Nigeria. On the other side, the results about Nigeria showed that the government closed the economy and limited social relations according to the severity of the pandemic in a given region or city. The most affected workers appear to be informal ones, who, in most cases, continued to work despite restrictions by the government. These workers benefited most from emergency aid from the government and other institutions, but it appears that this aid was not in the amount necessary to encourage them to stay at home and not work. The paper concludes that, according to the results, the initial hypothesis that public policies played a fundamental role in the better performance of Ethiopia compared with Nigeria cannot be confirmed. Moreover, Ethiopia’s worse performance in successive periods of the pandemic may be due to several factors affecting the virus-fighting results. This experience can thus provide us with some general conclusions that will help in future health emergencies. The challenge in the developing world will be to improve health delivery systems by recruiting and equipping health professionals to face future pandemics, thus readjusting the health system to meet the demand of the current pandemic's worst periods. On the other side, for these measures to achieve positive results, it will be necessary to implement public policies that provide subsistence conditions for individuals who are below the poverty line, mostly working in the informal sector.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 16-23 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2022.16.11.3


Dairy Cattle Breeding Systems

Maria Luiza Simão Evaristo1, Vitoria Raissa Moraes da Silva1, Fábio Luiz Bim Cavalieri2, Sidnei do Amaral Freire3, Márcia Aparecida Andreazzi2

ABSTRACT: The dairy activity has a satisfactory perspective on the world scenario and this is due to the improvement of technologies in the activity and the choice of the best breeding system. The objective of this work was to carry out a theoretical approach on the different systems of raising dairy cows. A scientometric study of scientific literature published in journals indexed in the SciELO database was carried out. The search was carried in 2022 and the following descriptors were used, in portuguese and english: dairy cow production systems; facilities for dairy cows; extensive system of/for dairy cows; semi intensive system from/to dairy cows; intensive system from/to dairy cows; collective beds for dairy cows; single beds for dairy cows; loose Housing; free stall and compost barn. The process resulted in 21 articles, from which the information was collected: year of publication, central thematic axis of the research, periodicals with the highest number of publications on the theme and the classification of the periodical. Data were analyzed descriptively. The analysis revealed a low number of publications on the subject, over more than 20 years, mostly in low impact journals. The main themes of the publications addressed the characteristics of the Free-Stall system, studies on the economic and financial viability of intensive production systems and the Compost Barn System. There was a highlight in publications that evaluated the environmental conditions both in the Free Stall system and in the Compost Barn system

[ FULL TEXT PDF 24-29 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2022.16.11.4