Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences

October 2022


Comparative Analysis Of Heavy Metals In Farm And River Bred Catfish (Clarias Gariepnus)

Isiaka Adio Hassan

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) is a major source of protein in Nigeria, which has some nutritional and health benefits. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to compare heavy metal concentrations in farm and river bred catfish. Method: Total four catfishes (big and small); two each of farm bred and river bred were sourced from LASUSTECH Fish Farm and Bayeku River respectively. They were dissected; 1 g each of gill and flesh were removed from four fishes and analysed for iron (Fe), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) using standard analytical methods. Data were subjected to descriptive and inferential statistics using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS 22.0 version). The t – test was used to test, if there is a significant difference in the heavy metal concentration in big and small catfishes sourced from the farm and river. RESULTS: All the values of heavy metals (farm bred catfishes) above their corresponding Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) limits; with the Fe (75.70± 44.17 mg/kg) highest and Cd (0.001±0.0 mg/kg) lowest. There are significant differences in the values of Fe, Cr and Zn among four samples, except Cd, Ni, Cu and Pb. However, all the values of heavy metals (river bred catfishes) higher than their corresponding FAO limits; with the Fe (86.37 ±44.17 mg/kg) has the highest value, while Pb (0.54± 0.552 mg/kg) is the lowest. There are no significant differences in the values of Cd, Ni, Cu, and Pb among four samples. The Fe, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Cd contents (river bred) are higher than that of the farm bred, except Ni and Zn values. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that farm bred catfish is less contaminated with Fe, Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb than the river bred.

] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2022.16.10.1


Prevention Of Oral Epithelial Dysplasia And Neoplasya Using Guabiroba Extract: A Study With Wistar Rats

Luis Noldin Junior, Paulo César Amorim, Sandra Denise Camargo Mendes, Stefany Grützmann Arcari, Sarah Freygang Mendes Pilati

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In recent years, studies focused on the total antioxidant activity present in native fruits in Brazil due to the compounds present with properties of reducing the level of oxidative stress and consequently reducing the risk of several cardiovascular, neurodegenerative and cancer. Objective: The aim of the study was to analyze the effects of guabiroba fruit extract on chemically induced carcinogenesis in rats. METHODS: Carcinogenesis was chemically induced by the compound 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene in oral mucosa applications in Wistar rats using only the carcinogen in the control group, the gel vehicle, application of pure extract and for the experimental group, applications of 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene and topical application of guabiroba pulp extract in 24 rats divided into 4 groups. After 60 days, the animals were euthanized to collect tissue samples. The tissue samples were analyzed in a microscope using Hematoxylin Eosin coloration with World Health Organization criteria. RESULTS: Cases of moderate and intense dysplasia were found in 66.7% of the animals in the control group and 33.3% in the experimental group. In pure extract group and gel vehicle group animals, there were no cases of moderate and intense epithelial dysplasia. Inflammatory infiltrate was found in 100 % of the slides of the control group; in 33.3 % of the experimental group only and in 16. 7% of the pure extract group and the gel vehicle group. The results showed that there was a difference between the control and experimental groups, i.e., in the control group, which was only in contact with the 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene, dysplasia occurred in whole animals. In comparison, in the experimental group, in addition to the carcinogen, the guabiroba extract was also applied, and there were half as many samples with dysplasia. Conclusion:9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene proved to be effective in promoting chemical carcinogenesis and should be used in rat animal models of oral cancer. The results found in this study showed that guabiroba fruit extract has the ability to reduce the formation of epithelial dysplasia, suggesting its preventive efficacy; in addition, it can reduce the presence of inflammatory infiltrate in oral mucosa.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 6-12 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2022.16.10.2


Impact of Shallow Foundations Rigidity on Low-rise Buildings Performance Resting on Varying Ground Conditions

Moaz Amer, Ahmed Hosny, Hossam Abdallah, Sayed Elaraby

ABSTRACT: Background: Due to the extent of housing development in hilly terrains in many countries, ground preparation and re-leveling have come into effect. So, the construction of buildings on subsoil that comprises fill and cut becomes inevitable. Objective: Increasing the structure stiffness to minimize the differential settlement is one of the options that could be utilized for such cases. In the current study, a parametric study was performed to assess the influence of the stiffness of structures on reinforced concrete framed structures resting on variable ground conditions using finite element models. The investigated structure rests partially on dense sand and partially on loose, dense sandy soil. The structure stiffness varied with different tie beam depths. The distortion angle values were compared with the safe limit specified in standards to reduce cracks in brick walls. The results are presented in the form of curves, which allow engineers to evaluate the reasonable structure stiffness. Current research has shown that the tie beam rigidity can significantly reduce the distortion angle and allow the shallow foundation to be considered as a convenient option despite being located on a hill. Conclusion: The foundation rigidity improves the building's rigidity as a whole. Increasing tie beam rigidity decreases the differential settlement and the building distortion, reducing the straining actions on reinforced concrete elements and limiting the cracking of brick walls.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 13-23 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2022.16.10.3


An analysis of investigations into the use of tulathromycin in cattle

Larissa da Costa Rodrigues Bartolomeu, Fábio Luiz Bim Cavalieri, Marcia Aparecida Andreazzi, Sidnei do Amaral Freire

ABSTRACT: The use of antibiotics is an important tool for animal production, especially for raising cattle. Therefore, considering the concern with the use of antibiotics in animal production, there is a need to analyze and know the situation of publications regarding the antibiotic tulathromycin, a drug of current relevance with promising use in animal production chains, especially for the chain bovine production. Thus, the aim of this study was to perform an analysis of publications on the antibiotic tulathromycin, with emphasis on its use in cattle. A scientometric study was carried out, based on a survey of journals indexed in the Web of Science and SciELO databases, using the descriptors: Tulathromycin, Draxxin, Tulaxx, Tulissin and Treoxin. After refinement and analysis regarding duplicity and adherence to the scope of the research, the search resulted in 158 articles, published between the years 2004 to 2021, from which information was collected: year of publication, central theme of the research, animal species and data on the purpose of its use in cattle breeding. Data were tabulated and organized in a electronic spreadsheet and descriptive analysis was used. The results showed that the number of publications on the antibiotic tulathromycin increased over the years and the articles discussed various topics, however, the use of antibiotics as a way of treating various animal diseases stood out, especially research on Respiratory Disease in beef cattle, and the main agents associated with Bovine Respiratory Disease were Mannheimia haemolytica (12.25%) and Mycoplasma bovis (10.20 %).

[ FULL TEXT PDF 24-29 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2022.16.10.4