Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
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September 2018


Magnetic Basement Depth and Structure over Parts of Bida Basin, Nigeria Interpreted from 2-D Spectral Analysis and 3-D Euler Deconvolution

Opara, Alexander Iheanyichukwu, Nwofor, Victor Udokamma, Echetama, Henry Nkemakolam, Emberga, Terhemba Theophilus and Inyang Godwin Edet

Abstract: Background and Objective: Spectral analysis and Euler deconvolution of the residual field of the high resolution aeromagnetic data of part of Bida Basin were used to estimate the depths of anomalous magnetic sources of the area. This paper was aimed at the determination of magnetic basement depth of the area, the structural features associated with it and to infer favourable areas for possible mineral and petroleum exploration. Methods: High resolution aeromagnetic(HRAM) data of parts of Bida Basin within latitudes 80001 - 90001N and longitudes 60301 - 70301E, comprising Gulu, Koton-Karfi, Abaji and Kuje aeromagnetic sheets were acquired from the Nigerian Geology Survey Agency (NGSA).Several analytical techniques were used to digitally filter the data to improve signal-to-noise ratio. Results: The spectral analysis carried out using the residual data revealed a two layer depth model with the shallow magnetic layer depth ranging from 0.138 km to 0.935 km with an average value of 0.583 km. This depth layer is attributed to the surficial intrusion into the sedimentary fill, while the magnetic basement depth ranges from 1.86 km to 4.264 km with an average value of 2.723 km. Depth solutions using Standard Euler Deconvolution with a structural index of 0 (representing contacts) revealed depths generally below 0.250 km. The Euler deconvolution filter map was used to infer the locations as well as the depths to causative magnetic bodies using structural index 0. Structural interpretation of the HRAM data set revealed linear features with directional attributes of NW-SE, NE-SW, N-S and E-W directions with the NE-SW direction being dominant. Conclusions: The central part of the study area to its south-eastern part, especially around Abaji and environs is the most advisable area to undertake hydrocarbon exploration since the area has sedimentary thickness range of 3.3 - 4.4 km, which fall within the range of the oil window of a typical sedimentary basin. Similarly, the areas within the west and the south are potential areas of solid mineral exploration because of the shallow overburden thickness of 0.1 km.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-9 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.9.1


Enhancement of Cd2+ Ionsremoval Bymelamine-Modified Activated Carbon Made From Coconut Shells

Vianet Kouakou Bossombra, Tchirioua Ekou, Lynda Ekou, Trong-On Do

Abstract: Anactivated carbon (AC) prepared from the original coconut shell collected in Ivory Coast were modified with melamine (ACM) for the efficient removal of Cd2+ ions in aqueous solution. The resulting AC and ACM were characterized by different techniques including N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, elemental analysis, XPS analysis, Boehm titration, spectroscopic methods (SEM, FTIR) and pH pzc determination. The adsorption capacities of AC and ACM with respect to Cd2+ ions were evaluated by batch sorption experiments and compared. The adsorption capacity was strongly influenced by the solution pH and the optimum pH was ~5. The adsorption capacity ofCd2+ ions for ACM is 75% higher than that for the no modified activated carbon(AC), due to the presence of nitrogen functional groups in the surface of the ACM material. adsorption isotherms and kinetic models were used to describe the adsorption process. The equilibrium data for AC and ACM fit well with the Freundlich model and the adsorption equilibrium can be reached after 4 h. The adsorption kinetics data were found to be better described by the pseudo-second-order model. The main mechanisms for the Cd2+ adsorption onto the activated carbons were proposed to be cation exchange, and coordination bond formation with basic functional groups of surfaces containing nitrogen or oxygen.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 10-19 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.9.2


Comparative Effect of Rotylenchulus reniformis and Meloidogyne incognita on the Productivity of okra in Nigeria

Claudius-Cole A.O.

Abstract: Okra has risen in importance from being the fifth popularly produced vegetable to the second in the last few years in Nigeria. This study therefore evaluated the impact of growing okra in soils infested with Rotylenchulus reniformis and Meloidogyne incognita. A pot experiment was conducted in the screenhouse with three popular okra cultivars (NH 47-4, LD66-1 and Clemson spineless) inoculated with either R. reniformis or M. incognita and compared to uninoculated plants. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with five replicates. The field trial was conducted using one cultivar, Clemson spineless and the same treatments as the pot trial laid out in a randomised complete block design with four replications. Data were collected on number of leaves, leaf area, plant height, number of fruits and fruit weight and submitted for analysis of variance. Significant reduction in number of leaves and plant height was observed in inoculated compared to uninoculated plants. Inoculated plant produced smaller and fewer fruits in comparison to the control. Yield reduction in pots was 31-72% in pot experiments with R. reniformis and 51-76% in pots with M. incognita. Yield of Clemson spineless in the field was reduced by 36% and 40% by M. incognita and R. reniformis respectively. The reniform nematode has gone beyond being a potential pest of vegetable crops such as okra in Nigeria to being an actual pest that requires serious management interventions.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 20-25 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.9.3


Rain, River and Religion A Study of Negotiating Identity of Bakumpai People in Kalimantan, Indonesia

Setia Budhi. Ph. D.

Abstract: Ethnographic study that related communcal identities in Kalimantan gave important understanding that customary communities, believes and local languages were interrelated. Scharer (1963) classified Dayak Baroto community as Ngaju. The term Ngaju in the local languate meant “toward upper course”. Additionally, some used the term “Oloh Ngajus” to identify the communities that differed themselves from “Oloh TUmbang” representing the community of Dayak living in the area alongside estuary. The Olong Tumbang was the areas alongside the estuary of Barito River in which Bakumpai people lived. Using ethnographic approach, data were collected in the area of Barito, Samba and Long Iram Rivers. The data of the narration of the life of Bakumpai people and their identity were collected in the period of August 2015 to June 1016. the study found the religious identify of Bakumpai people in the context of Dayak and Islam in South Kalimantan and Central Kalimantan. Bakumpai people converted to Islam did not automatically leave their Dayak identity. They did not change their customary and cultural identity as the case of other communities of Dayak in Kalimantan who changed their identity into Malay (Tame Melayo, Basalam). The social structure of the people in the past could not instantly be changed into Malay social structure. The issue of customary identity as raised in the study has been discussed by researchers. Dayak was not compatible with Islam. However, Bakumpai people proudly acknowledged that they were part of Malay of the descendants of Ngaju.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 26-30 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.9.4


Effect of Fire on the Productivity of Homogeneous Stands of Eucalyptus Camaldulensis Denhn

Otávio Peres Filho, Maria Rosa Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto Moraes Passos , Marcelo Dias de Souza, Josamar Gomes da Silva Junior

Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of fire in Eucalyptus camaldulensis stands on eight years old productivity. The work was conducted in Mutuca Farm, owned by the Sadia Oeste SAGroup, located in the municipality district of Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, where the area was divided into two parts, which one of the parts was affected by fire 30 months after planting and the other hasn’t been burned by fire. In each one of those parts,10 plots with 100 trees/plot were installed. The parameters of survival of the trees, amount and dimensions of the cracks in the bark, amount of side branch in the log, state health of the trees, thickness of the bark and wood volume/area and biomass production were evaluated. The results showed no significant difference in the survival of plants, however in the area without occurrence of fire no individuals with cracks in the wood were found, and the number of individuals with lateral sprouts was low while in the other area averaged 9.3 individuals with cracks and a larger number of plants with sprouts. In relation to biomass production, no significant differences was found among eucalyptus, submitted and not submitted to the action of fire in the majority of parameters evaluated, in exception for biomass production in the branches was significant.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 31-34 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.9.5


Density of Competition between Species of Urochloa Sp. in Soybean Cultivation

Lucas Aparecido Manzani Lisboa, Ronaldo da Silva Viana, Victor Garcia Venâncio, Filipe Virgilio Ribeiro, Igor Virgilio Ribeiro, Paulo Alexandre Monteiro de Figueiredo, Sérgio Bispo Ramos, Gabriel Banos Rodrigues, Hiago Augusto Amaral Sacco, Mateus Augusto Marques Batista

Abstract: Introduction: Competition between grasses and legumes in cultivation areas depends on their specific skills of survival. Objective: This work aimed to evaluate effects of densities of competition between species of Urochloa sp. in soybean cultivation. Material and Methods: The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design, in a 3x5 factorial scheme, with 3 different grasses species: Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu and Piatã and Urochloa ruziziensis; and 5 different densities of grasses, with 5 repetitions, summing 75 plots or vases. Thirty days after sowing, the following variable were set: SPADS – spad index of soybean; SC – stomata conductance; DSS – diameter of soybean stem; HS and HG – height of soybean and height of grass; NSL – number of soybean leaves; DMAPS and DMAPG – dry mass of aerial part of soybean and dry mass of aerial part of grass; and DMSR and DMGR – dry mass of soybeans ´root and dry mass of grass ´root. Conclusion: Urochloa brizantha cv. and Piatã e Urochloa ruziziensis caused a greater harmful effect in soybean cultivation. Development of soybean cultivation is impaired even in low competition with species of Urochloa, being necessary its control at the initial phase of cultivation..

[ FULL TEXT PDF 35-40 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.9.6


An Efficient Model for Clustering Source Code Documents for Feature Location

A.S. Baby Rani and A.R.Nadira Banu Kamal

Abstract: Text mining is widely used for many Software Engineering tasks and clustering is applied to group the related documents for feature location. With the proliferation of software applications in the Agile Development environment, it is vital and challenging to document and maintain the source code artifacts for maintenance and support. An automatic document summarization that can aid for feature location can be helpful for many software engineering tasks. In this research work, the unsupervised machine learning technique, Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) modeling is used to model the source code documents with the entire textual content as text corpus and k-Means clustering is applied to cluster the documents.The inherent relationship of the source code documents is harnessed by clustering on text corpus with formal contexts used in the source code documents and this model is mapped upon LDA model with cluster analysis measures to improve the clustering. Three open source software systems namely JEdit, ArgoUML and JabRef are used for the case study and the results are presented. This work provides a fully automated model to extract features and efficiently store in its meta-form.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 41-46 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.9.7


Best Multiplier Approximation of Unbounded Periodic Functions Using Fejer Operators

Saheb K. AL-Saidy, Naseif J. AL-Jawari and Ali H. Zaboon

Abstract: In this paper, we study the best multiplier approximation of unbounded functions in L_(P, _n ) (B) -space, B=[-π,π] by using the trigonometric Fourier series by means of the averaged modulus of smoothness..

[ FULL TEXT PDF 47-51 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.9.8


Assessment of the Automatic Digital Surface Model from Digital Aerial Camera and from Lidar Point Clouds Data

Ayman EL-Shehaby and Lamyaa Gamal El-Deen Taha

Abstract: The advent of very high resolution digital airborne camera capable of producing stereo images led to a new era in extracting digital Surface model. Until recently, the collection of high quality digital surface models was assigned to the use of airborne lidar. The aim of the research is to evaluate the potential of digital photogrammetric aerial camera and Airborne lidar for the generation of accurate digital surface Model (DSM). The first part of the paper is focused on DSM generation from digital photogrammetric aerial camera. The second one is concerned with the airborne lidar DSM generation. In DSM generation from digital photogrammetric aerial camera, Firstly, image orientation, AT have been performed. Then automatic digital surface model DSM generation from digital aerial camera has been performed using image matching. Leica Photogrammetric Suite (LPS) module of Erdsa Imagine 2014 software was utilized for processing. In DSM generation from LIDAR las point cloud, DSM was generated from LIDAR las point cloud using open source software lastools. Then the accuracies of the generated DSM’s from both techniques were compared. The results show that automatic digital surface model DSM that has been produced from digital aerial camera gives high density 3D point clouds compared to the LIDAR 3D point clouds. It was found that the DSM produced from LIDAR is better accuracy than the DSM produced from digital aerial camera.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 52-57 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.9.9


Antioxidant Content and Capacity of Jordanian Date Palm Fruit at two Maturity Stages

Hiba F. Al-Sayyed, Refa’t Al-Kurd, Marwan Mwalla and Salma Abdel Qader

Abstract: Introduction: Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is cultivated in Jordan for long known time. One of the most commonly grown date palm fruit varieties in Jordan is Barhi. The date palm fruits get matured due to the enzymatic action upon fruit components triggered by climatic conditions. This maturity can be felt through changes in fruit color, size, weight, and taste. Date palm fruit has three edible maturity stages i.e. Khalal, Rutab, and Tamr. Tamr has the least amount of moisture. This study is aimed at comparing the antioxidant content and the capacity of Jordanian Barhi variety of date palm fruit at two maturity stages such as Rutab and Tamr on fresh matter basis. Methods: Two methods were used to study the antioxidant content namely Folin-Ciocalteau method and total flavonoid method whereas 2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and cupric antioxidant reducing capacity (CUPRAC) assays were used to study the antioxidant capacity. Three solvents were used for the fruit extraction (ethanol, methanol, and water). Results: From the results, it was inferred that different extracts of Rutab and Tamr showed significant (P<0.05) differences in terms of antioxidant content as well as antioxidant capacity. Rutab showed significantly (P<0.05) high total polyphenol content (measured by Folin-Ciocalteau method as M catechin/100 g) than Tamr which reflected in its high antioxidant capacity (measured as M trolox/100 g by CUPRAC assay) in Rutab. On the other hand, Tamr exhibited higher total flavonoid content (measured as M rutin/100 g by total flavonoid method) than Rutab. This result has been reflected by higher antioxidant capacity (measured as % DPPH scavenging capacity and as vitamin C equivalent by DPPH assay) in Tamr. Conclusion: Upon maturation from Rutab to Tamr, antioxidant content decreases while total flavonoid content increases. The antioxidant capacity increases while the %DPPH scavenging diminishes upon maturation from Rutab to Tamr. Further, some antioxidants diminish while others get concentrated upon maturation from Rutab to Tamr. The use of different solvents for extraction allowed the extraction and quantification of different polarity antioxidants of the fruit.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 58-62 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.9.10


Influencing Factors of Mobile Marketing among Young Malaysian Customers

Mohammed Abdulellah Yousuf Saeed and Hussain Ali Bekhet

Abstract: The objective of the study is to examine the influential factors of mobile marketing among young Malaysian customers. This study concentrates only on survey of young Malaysian mobile marketing consumers in response to behaviors of mobile marketing adoptions from which the data is derived. 900 questionnaires were distributed. Out of this number, 602 were complete and useable. Based on study results, apart from personalization; attitude, perceived usefulness, trust, and permission plays important role in increasing young customers’ intentions to use mobile marketing services. Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived entertainment and personal attachment significantly influenced young customers’ attitudes towards mobile marketing.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 63-72 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.9.11


The Effect of Organizational Factors and IT on Productivity in Valve Manufacturing

Praneeth Tagaram

Abstract: We investigate the relationship between productivity of the business and the role of information technology (IT). Our case study is a valve manufacturing. We examine the effect of implementing new IT systems on improvements in employee skills, manufacturing process, quality of product, etc. We show that the implementation of new IT contribute to enhancement in business strategies, production efficiency by reducing the set-up time, and the skill and capabilities of the employees. This paper gives the importance of productivity, skills of an employee and role of Information technology in a manufacturing industry. It also describes the relationship between all the three factors and their individual roles in a valve manufacturing industry or company which helps in a great extent to be more effective, productive and to maintain the standards. Information technology also uses a lot of investments for machinery and technology which can be backed by the productivity strategies of the industry with the main support of the workers by honing their unique skills. Our study shows how this is performed and apply innovative business strategies, how effective it can be by shortening the technology installing periods, improves efficiency in production with the raising requirement in employee individual skillset in the valve manufacturing unit.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 73-77 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.9.12


Low doses of Gamma Radiation in Soybean

José Gilmar Franco, Suely Salumita Haddad Franco, Caio Haddad Franco, Luisa Haddad Franco, Maria Abud Haddad Franco, Paula B. Arthur, Anna L. C. Villavicencio, Valter Arthur

Abstract: The degree of radio sensitivity depends mainly on the species, the stage of the embryo in the irradiation, the doses used and the criteria used to measure the effect. One of the most common criteria for evaluating seed radio sensitivity is to measure the plant's average yield. The dried soybean seeds were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from Cobalt-60, Gammacell-220 type source, at a dose rate of 0.245 kGy. In the first stage the objective was to study the effects of radiation stimulation on germination, growth and plant production. Four doses of radiation were applied as follows: 0 (control); 25; 50; 75 and 100 Gy. Seed germination harvested seed number and total yield were evaluated to identify the occurrence of stimulation. The low doses of gamma radiation in the seeds that stimulate the production were doses of 25, 50 and 75 Gy. In the second stage the objective was also to study the effects of radiation stimulation on germination, growth and plant production. In this case, a treatment with three doses of radiation was applied as follows: 0 (control); 12.5; 25.0 and 50.0 Gy. Seed germination harvested seed number and total yield were evaluated to identify the occurrence of stimulation. The number of soybean seeds and plants were handled following the standard seed production in Brazil. There is evidence in the results showing that the use of low doses of gamma radiation can stimulate the germination and the production of plants.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 78-80 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.9.13


Characterization of Water Inflitration in the Soil of the São João River Basin on the Municipality of Porto Nacional, in the State of Tocantins, Brazil

Angelo Ricardo Balduino, Diogo Pedreira Lima, Cleber Decarli de Assis, Aurean de Paula Carvalho, Lucas Barbosa e Souza and Márcio Galdino dos Santos

Abstract: The present study of the characterization of the infiltration of the Ribeirão São João river basin has the objective of understanding the behavior of the water infiltration, where infiltration tests were performed in the place by the Kostiakov method and permeability by the method proposed by Radcliffe and Simunek associated with classification criteria of Reichardt, using double ring infiltrometers, associated to the geological knowledge of the area that subsidized the elaboration of the chart of use and occupation of the soil. Some recharge areas are impacted with low susceptibility to infiltration due to the intensive use of agriculture and its expansion, which directly affects the biodiversity around the basin under study. Improving the quality and quantity of water in the São João river basin depends on good planning by the local authorities, taking measures to guide and control the use and occupation of the soil, as well as the activities performed by the population in the surrounding basin area that supplies the city's water supply system (SAA).

[ FULL TEXT PDF 81-87 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.9.14


Mathematical Modeling of a Supply Chain with Uncertain Parameters

Raad Alzahrani

Abstract: Decision making in supply chain network problems is fraught with numerous uncertainties. In this paper, we discuss and illustrate a four-layer supply chain network including suppliers, manufacturers, warehouses, and markets, which is designed to address the production and transportation of a single product. We present a robust optimization model that is useful in analyzing uncertainties associated with the primary input parameters including demand, supply, and cost parameters since it does not affect the complexity of the original deterministic model. The objective of the mathematical model is to obtain the optimal location of manufacturers and warehouses as well as the quantities of raw materials and final products, which result in the minimum total costs including the penalty costs.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 88-92 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.9.15


A Robust Optimization Approach to Supply Chain Cost Optimization

Raad Alzahrani

Abstract: Problems under uncertainties require an efficient operation of supply chain planning. In this paper, we discuss and illustrate a four-layer supply chain network including suppliers, manufacturers, warehouses, and markets, which is designed to address the production and transportation of a single product. We use a robust optimization approach for the analysis of uncertainties associated with the primary input parameters including demand, supply, and cost parameters. Additionally, we provide a numerical example of a supply chain network and show how sensitive is the objective function to the conservatism degrees at different levels of changes in the decision parameters. It is found that the objective function is most sensitive to the forecast of uncertain demands.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 93-97 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.9.16


The Use of One Tambon One Product Model as the Strategy to Improve Competitive Advantage and Market Access of Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises in Effort to Attain Better Development in Welcoming ASEAN Market in Great Malang


Abstract: Local leading products supported by local government would have competitive advantage and market access, and also are potentially manageable for better development. These products are optimized through a mechanism called One Tambon One Product in the context of sector-based development, and this optimizationis aimed for several goals, such as: to make sure that these products are potentially marketable at local or global levels, to improve the quality and added-value of these products, and to increase market access to these products. Long-term objective of this research is to formulate One Tambon One Product concept for Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) in all regions of Malang Raya. The more specific objectives are: (1) to identify the leading sector or commodity that has the largest contribution to the economic growth of Malang Raya; and (2) to find out One Tambon One Product model that is suitable for the development of MSMEs in Malang Raya. The latter objectives are proceeded as pilot project with monitoring and evaluation to obtain more comprehensive model. The object of this research is Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises (MSME) in Malang City, Malang Regency, and Batu City. Few methods are used for data analysis, such as: the determination of long list of leading commodities; Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) that comprises three stages, which are building hierarchy, conducting survey, and analyzing survey result; value chain analysis used as the approach to understand the result of survey; and the verification on the result of survey with expert discussion, or commonly known as Focus Group Discussion. Result of research indicates that the leading commodity in Malang City includes vegetables, fishes and kinds (wet market), big scale trading (wholesaler), and mixed trading (garments, electronics and others). Leading commodity in Malang Regency comprises of some industries such as food industry, wood industry, metal industry, and plait/pottery/ceramic handicrats. Batu City’s leading commodity is represented by wholesaler, star and jasmine hotels, natural and artificial tourisms, food & beverage industry, wet market, and mixed trading. The implication of this research is that the frame underlying One Tambon One Product model contains with many aspects. One aspect concerns with the establishment of agencies to support business development, including technical support agencies or coordination forum agencies at district, regency/city, and province levels. Other aspect is the founding of cross-institution committee, but it is only built in province level. All of them represent the strategies to improve competitive advantage and market access of MSMEs in Malang Raya to attain better development for them.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 98-106 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.9.17


Diversity of Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) In Urban Forest Fragment of Cuiabá-MT

Maria T C Carvalho, Alberto Dorval, Otávio Peres Filho, Marcelo D de Souza, Lilian G de Favare, Josamar G da Silva Junior

Abstract: The urban forest fragments are composed of a housing matrix and constitute, for fundamental reasons, the portion of preservation of diversity and efficiency for the relationship between living beings and the environment. The survey of the diversity of ants of a fragment has the function of being the picture of the situation of the assessed environment, be it permanent or transitory. The objective of this work was to identify the diversity of ants, in an urban forest fragment according to the levels of anthropization of the fragment, in the city of Cuiabá/MT. The environments were classified as Cerrado native, transition zone and anthropic Cerrado, and for each environment 15 Pitfall traps were arranged, from which they were distributed in a transect equidistant 20 meters, remaining in the field seven days a month. The collected entomological material was sent to the Forest Protection Laboratory of the Faculty of Forestry Engineering, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, at each collection, to perform the taxonomic and genotypic identification and species identification. Faunistic analyses were performed, such as: wealth index, diversity, equity and similarity of Sorenson. To compare the diversity among the environments, the means of occurrence of the species were compared statistically by the Tukey test at the 5% probability level. The composition of ant species diversity can be influenced by the state of conservation of the environment. It was observed in the study that Solenopsis sp., Solenopsis invicta, Atta sexdens, Labidus praedator, Pheidole jelskiiand, Pheidole obscurithorax were representative in the faunistic analysis, due to the maximum classifications obtained in the items that compose the index. The analysis of variance for the number of species collected showed that there was no significant difference between the transition and anthropic environments, whereas for the number of individuals, there was no difference between the native and anthropic environments in the dry period. The advancement of anthropization in forest fragments favours their colonization by species of omnivorous and opportunistic ants.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 107-115 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.9.18


Employee Attitudes as a Mediator between Hrm and Organizational Performance

Mohamed Elfadeel Ali Akeel, Roshartini Omar, Md Asrul Nasid Masrom

Abstract: Attitude is a power that controls human behaviour. When employee Attitude is positive, it can give impact positive to organization performance. A proper human resource management (HRM) managed by organization, the employee attitude will be affected. HRM practices influence employee attitude positively and there is a mediating role of employee attitude between training and development dimension of HRM practices and organizational performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to explore employee atttiude as a mediator between HRM and organizational performance. A sample of this study was 219 respondents from employee construction in Libya. The data was analyzed using structural equation modelling (SEM) approach. This study showed that employee attitudes is a full mediator between relationship HRM and organizational performance. Therefore, HRM practices influence employee attitude and its give impact to organizational performance for more effective and efficient in achieving organization goal.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 116-121 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.9.19


Difficulties and Challenges Facing Strategic Planning in Jordanian Municipalities; Applied Field Study from Managers Point Views

Saleh A.A Tamimi, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Samihah Khalil , Prof. Dr. Haim Hilman Abdullah

Abstract: The objective of this research paper is to examine the challenges facing Jordanian municipalities organizations in Strategic Planning (SPing). Current paper relies on descriptive technique and is subject to theoretical literature review in Strategic Management (SM) field, it’s a qualitative research paper used thematic analyses approach based on semi-structure interviews with municipalities leaders or key managers. The structure of this paper starts with introduction, followed by study background, then a presentation of SPing challenges results and analysis and the implications, finally this paper ends with conclusion and recommendations. This investigation question is; “What are the difficulties and challenges that encounter Jordanian municipalities managers in SPing for their organizations?”. The answer of this investigation is being based on municipalities key managers views and SM theory within Public Organization (POs), also it incorporates the analysis of other related literature to draw better conclusions. The significance of this work comes from the importance of SPing in this area at the current time, where it is one of the first studies in Jordan Municipal sector. However, this paper will rely on interviews collected data and it will be limited to the targeted municipalities interviewees views, but it uses and incorporate other academics works and expertise from all over the world for explanations and in taking out some valuable lessons. Findings indicate that only large municipalities have a sort of SPs in different degrees or values, while small and medium size municipalities rely on operational plans issued by the Ministry of Municipal Affairs (MMA), also findings showed that all municipalities are facing numerous challenges and difficulties in this management vital process. Finding shows that municipalities are struggling with their SPs formulation from various factors to include inside and outside factors. While, most municipalities mayors or key managers were aware of SPing available tools, and they revealed that SPs has a positive effect on their municipality’s performance and outcome services.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 122-127 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.9.20


Identification of Wood Deteriorating Fungi in a Semi-Deciduous Seasonal Forest Fragment

Adão Batista de Araújo, Thiago Cardoso Silva, Josias Divino Silva de Lucena, César Henrique Alves Borges, Lúcia dos Santos Rodrigues, Vinícius Staynne Gomes Ferreira, 1Emmanoella Costa Guaraná Araujo and Lúcia de Fatima de Carvalho Chaves

Abstract: The plants present a natural defense against degradation, but they are subject to the biodeterioration of their living or dead tissues, and some species are more susceptible than others due to their chemical composition and genetic load, which give them their characteristics of natural preservation. Due to its chemical and structural arrangement, the wood can suffer deterioration by different forms and can occur by chemical, physical, mechanical and biological agents. The primary biological agents responsible for the degradation of wood structures are insects, fungi, mollusks, crustaceans, and bacteria. Macrofungi constitute heterotrophic organisms that form easily distinguishable structures popularly known as mushrooms, ear-of-wood, molds, among others, some of these forms being associated with tree deaths in forest environments. Thus, the present work aimed to identify in situ situating fungi of wood in a fragment of Seasonal Semideciduous Forest, differentiating if such fungi occur in dead wood and live tree trunks. The study was developed in a native forest fragment, located in the municipality of Itambé-PE, with an area of 650 ha, for which information on the use history refers to at least 100 years without direct interventions. The city was divided into six rows spaced 400 meters apart, which were traversed to identify the fungal structures present in the woody materials. The evaluated characteristics for identification of the fungi were the color, size and specific morphometric features of the species, whose results were compared with the information described in the collection of the URM - UFPE Micoteca, following a taxonomic classification according to the Index Fungorum. 27 morphometrically different wood deteriorating fungi were observed in the natural environment, of which 20 morphospecies were identified, 13 of which occurred in dead woody material and the other seven species in living wood. The order with the highest species richness was Poryporales, whose fungi are responsible for the deterioration of lignocellulosic materials. The environmental conditions at the time of observation contributed to the development of the fruiting bodies of the fungi but may have made it difficult to identify them in the field.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 128-130 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.9.21


Non Iterative Formulae for Direct Geodetic Problem

Saad Z. Bolbol, Khaled M. Zaky, Ashraf A. Ghonem

Abstract: Direct and inverse problem for geodesic on a reference ellipsoid is commonly used for many geodetic applications. Direct problem formulas are used in order to find the geodetic coordinates of the second point of the geodesic line and backward azimuth if geodetic coordinates of the first point, the length of geodesic and forward azimuth are given. It has been common to use iteration in order to calculate such coordinates, however, in this paper; we introduce applicable formulas that do not need iteration in order to be calculated with moderate accuracy. The research formulas results have been compared with the corresponding results of Vincenty’s iterative formulas. The comparison showing agreements to within 0.0000004 km of geodesic length (or 4.0 mm) and 0,0001" of azimuth in the range of 4560 km.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 131-134 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.9.22


Harmonic Reduction for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System based on Multilevel Inverter

Zeina k Gurgi, Doaa M. Yehia, Ahmed M. Azmy, and Abd El-wahab Hassan.

Abstract: This paper investigates the utilization of Multilevel Inverter (MLI) to reduce the harmonics of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system. MLIs act as a promising interface in medium voltage networks for many usages because their modularity and lower voltage stress towards the switches. In addition, they provide a high-form output with low symmetric deformation. It is proposed to use a Cascaded H-Bridge MLI (CHB-MLI) with network-linked PV systems since they require many sources on the DC side with phase-shifted carriers pulse width modulation. The mission of these converts is to synthesize a staircase AC output voltage from several DC voltage levels. A seven-level modular CHB-MLI is analyzed for grid-connected PV system with a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm. A free from outside control dc-link voltage controller for each H-bridge is performed by managing a battery system to maintain constant voltage and satisfy the grid-connected power. The simulation results ensure the validity and effectiveness of the introduced algorithm.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 135-145 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.9.23


Effect of Treated Irrigating Water by Iron Nanoparticles and (MINP) Coated with (NPK) as Foliar Nano-Fertilizer on Wheat Grains (Triticum aestivium L.) Yields (El Fayum-Egypt)

Yasser, A. M. Abdulhady, Hanan, H. Abdel- Kader, Saleh, A. L

Abstract: Magnetic iron nanoparticles (MNPs) have high magnetization values and particle size smaller than 100nm. These experimental preparation processes were vital to determine the liquor pH, nanoparticles concentration, initial temperature and contact time to get the iron oxide MNPs coated (NPK) with little size and distribution that is needed for plant absorption. Effect of IMNPs coated (NPK) nano-fertilizer on response of wheat grains and its content of some mineral’s nutrients, were investigated in two field experiments. IMNPs coated (NPK) nano-fertilizer was used as foliar application at different rates (0.1, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 gm.L-1). The obtained results indicated that, yield of wheat grains significantly increased as a result of raising Fe-nano-fertilizer concentration. While these significant results don’t found by increasing the rate of nano-fertilizer more than 0.9 g/L. Also, increasing the rate of Fe-nano-fertilizer as foliar application tended to a significant increase of iron and some macro-nutrients in wheat grains compared to control treatment. Article explained the increase magnetism energy of nano iron oxide on irrigation water. This study demonstrated that supplemental of Fe-NPK nano-fertilizer as foliar application can reduce the amount of chemical soil fertilizer dose and that this beneficial effect on the cost of agriculture production.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 146-156 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.9.24


Antifungical action of different concentrations of garlic extract in watermelon seeds

Ana Carolina Pinguelli Ristau, Maria Soraia Fortado Vera Cruz, Shirlene Souza Oliveira, Thatiane Nepomuceno Alves, Hannah Braz, Marlene de Matos Malavasi, Ubirajara Contro Malavasi

Abstract: The watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thumb. Mansf.) belonging to the family of the cucurbits, is a plant native to the tropical regions of Equatorial Africa. For a satisfactory production it is necessary to use seed with high quality, i.e., seeds able to play their vital functions. The sanitary quality has an important role for the successful production of vegetables because the presence of pathogens has direct effects on the force, seedling establishment and yield in field, which can cause considerable damage to the production system. The use of extracts obtained from plants can be considered an alternative for control of pathogenic microorganisms to seed, because they have some advantages, such as reduced spending and the environmental impact caused by the use of chemicals. The study aimed to evaluate the effects of differents concentrations of garlic extract in the physiological potential and its antifungal action in seeds of watermelon cultivar Charleston Gray. Watermelon seeds were submerged for a minute in concentrations of 0%, 25%, 50% and 75% of garlic extract. Then, they were submitted to the germination test in gerbox type boxes. During the germination test were counted daily the number of normal and abnormal seedlings. Based on the data were calculated the percentage of germination, percentage of normal and abnormal seedlings and dead seeds, the average speed of germination, germination medium time and germination speed index. At the end of the germination test we calculated the fungal incidence in the seeds. The concentrations of garlic extract tested have negative effects on physiological potential of soybean seeds cv. Charleston Gray, because there was a decrease in the percentage of germination with the highest concentration of garlic extract concomitantly, there was an increase in the percentage of abnormal seedlings and dead seeds. The garlic extract presents high efficiency in the control of fungi in watermelon seed because the seed treatment with the extract inhibited the incidence of fungi. The use of garlic extract in the control of fungi in seeds of watermelon proved highly effective, because at the lowest concentration tested, it was possible to eradicate the incidence of fungi in watermelon seeds cv. Charleston Gray, contrasting to what was observed in the non-treated seed where fungal observed high incidence. However, in spite of the efficiency in antifungal action, the garlic extract, at the concentrations used caused deleterious effects on seed physiological potential, as found in the germinative potential reduction and less force, in addition to the increase in the percentage of abnormal seedlings and dead seeds, in the highest concentration (75%) there was the inhibition of seed germination

[ FULL TEXT PDF 157-161 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.9.25