Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences

April 2019

Protective Role of Rosemary Ethanolic Extract on Thioacetamide Induced Hepatic Encephalopathy: Biochemical and Molecular Studies

Alshaimaa M. Said, Rania M. Waheed, Olla A. Khalifa

Abstract Background: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a major health concern worldwide with a significant morbidity and mortality in addition to the economic burden. Oxidative stress, induced from exposure to various pollutants, with the resultant inflammation contributed to the pathogenesis of HE. Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of rosemary ethanolic extract on thioacetamide (TAA) induced HE. Materials and Methods: Rats used in this study were divided into three groups: control group, TAA group received intraperitoneal (i.p) injection of TAA twice weekly for 12 weeks, rosemary treated group received i.p injection of TAA twice weekly and oral daily dose of rosemary ethanolic extract for 12 weeks. Results: The results revealed an obvious state of oxidative stress in liver and brain as evidenced by elevated malondialdehyde (MDA) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels and lowered reduced glutathione (GSH) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Additionally, the concentration and gene expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) indicating a significant inflammatory response. On the other hand, co-treatment with rosemary extract exhibited a significant improvement antioxidant capacities and inflammatory status of liver and brain. Moreover, the matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) as fibrotic markers were analyzed proposing a possible anti-fibrotic activity of rosemary. Conclusion: it can be concluded that rosemary extract provide a powerful ameliorating effect against TAA induced HE owing to the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and possible anti-fibrotic activities of its constituents.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-6 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.4.1


Population Dynamics of Pratylenchus Brachyurus in Succession of Crops in the Cerrado Biome

Janyne Moura dos Santos, Jéssika Karollyny Ferreira Monteiro Lima, Victor Hugo Moraes, Fernanda Moura dos Santos, Micael José de Almeida, Karine Meira de Abreu, Francisco Vicente Costa Neto, Lorena Cristina Alves Nogueira, Douglas Braga Santos, Franciele de Freitas Silva

Abstract The nematodes of the root lesions have caused shocking economic losses in several crops and in several regions of Brazil, mainly in soybean, beans, corn, cotton and pasture. The objective of this work was to analyze the population behavior of P. brachyurus in a succession of agricultural crops at points with a higher incidence of nematode during three years of collection. The experiment was conducted in an area of commercial grain cultivation in the municipality of Planaltina - Federal District. Several crops were planted during the three years of collection, being: soy, beans and corn in the year 2014; beans, millet and soybeans in the year 2015 and crotalaria, barley and beans in the year 2016. Five reefs were determined and the collection points were marked through a portable GPS device. The samples were always collected in June of each year. Soil and root samples were collected from the bean crops in 2014, millet in 2015 and barley in 2016. All data were submitted to analysis of variance, and the means separated using the Tukey's test (P <0.05). The results obtained here demonstrated that the host nematode culture reinforces the importance of new studies on the population dynamics of nematodes in the soil during the phenological stages of the crop, aiming at finding sustainable alternatives to reduce the population of plant parasites by helping to manage the nematode. soil and increasing crop productivity. The succession of cultures proved to be efficient for population control of P. brachyurus. Crotalaria (C. spectabilis) grown in soybean rotation is efficient for the management of P. brachyurus infested areas. The cultivated millet showed to be efficient in the succession of crops in areas infested with P. brachyurus.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 7-10 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.4.2


Human Resource Practices as Antecedents of Employee Performance in the Hotel Industry of Pakistan

Aamir Hayat, Muhammad Azeem, Raheel Nawaz, Muhammad Asif Hasan, Rabia Abdul Rehman

Abstract Background Human resources are a vital component of an association. The significance of human resource practices is perceived by almost every business nowadays. There is no denying of fact that human resource practices can play role in the development of employee performance. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of employee development, training, job rotation, empowerment and mentoring on employee performance in the hotel industry of Punjab, Pakistan. Methodology Population for the study was the management of the hotel industry of Punjab, Pakistan. The sample was taken from 300 hotel managers from Lahore, Multan, and Bahawalpur. A descriptive and cross-sectional method was used for this study. Pilot testing was performed with six managers from different hotels to test the validity of items. The validity of construct items was evaluated against confirmatory factor analysis and reliability was assessed by Cronbach's α. Skewness and kurtosis tests come before running regression which requires the normalcy of data. SPSS 20 was used to run regression analysis. Results All the items have a factor loading of 0.4 to 1 which were considered for analysis. The value of Cronbach's α for all the items is more than 0.7. Skewness value falls within the range of -.532 to -1.543 whereas kurtosis value falls within the range of .116 to 1.704, which indicated that normalcy was not issue in data. Outcomes demonstrated that employee development, training, Job rotation, empowerment and mentoring have t value of 3.137, 4.467, 5.012, 2.104 and 2.361 respectively. On the other hand, the p-value of all predicting factors was less than the value of 0.05. Conclusion All five hypotheses were supported by the results of current research. In short, worker performance is incredibly boosted by employee development, training, job rotation, empowerment and mentoring in the hotel sector of Punjab, Pakistan. More specifically, self-development, self-learning, and right training for employees are linked with the performance of individuals at different levels and organizational goals.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 11-17 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.4.3


Design and Implementation of Task Scheduling Model for Cloud Computing Using Simevents

Dr.Mohammed Younis Thanoun, Hanan Luqman AL Sawaf

Abstract Cloud computing is the best solution to meet all user requests, where users can get what they want without trouble, and can be accessed online. Given the benefits of cloud computing in terms of incredible flexibility, cost reduction, and high efficiency, these factors have made it the perfect solution to many problems. Since it has a very large user group, it means that it will receive a large number of tasks, which will make task scheduling in the cloud very important for task execution. Resource allocation is one of the key aspects of cloud computing where it faces many challenges in terms of improving the distribution of resources required by users. In addition, the performance of the system aims to increase the allocation of resources through scheduling algorithms. Scheduling is based mainly on several algorithms that are designed to divide resources between these tasks to be executed efficiently, fairly, cost effectively, shortest execution time and other factors but not all at the same time. In this paper, a scheduling model is designed and implemented using event-based simulations as a simplified approach using Matlab Simevents , as well as testing scheduling policies in terms of time sharing and space sharing with this model, and comparing results with CloudSim program results . and also work a comparison between the First Come First Served (FCFS) algorithm and the Short Job First (SJF) algorithm in terms of implementation time. Using the two programs. One of the most important results we have obtained is the possibility of designing a simulation model for cloud computing systems using Simevents easily and exploiting the possibilities of this program in testing different types of algorithms, as this program proved efficient in obtaining results matching the results of the program Cloudsim . The Simevents program gave good simulation results and, because of its ease of handling, it can be used to simulate other types of algorithms and can also be used to simulate the dynamic state.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 18-28 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.4.4


Relationship Between Human Resource Management and Organizational Performance: Employee Skills as a Mediator

Mohamed Elfadeel Ali Akeel, Roshartini Omar, Md Asrul Nasid Masrom

Abstract Employee skills is very important elements of HRM policies that influence organizational performance when the employees are skilled, they are willing to dedicate more time and show commitment at a certain level for achieving organizational objectives. More skilful workers will also perform better so that the organization will also perform better. Besides, good attitude is necessary that should be processed by the employees to achieve organization’s goals and targets Therefore, the purpose of this study is to explore employee skills as a mediator between HRM and organizational performance. A sample of this study was 219 respondents from employee construction in Libya. The data was analyzed using structural equation modelling (SEM) approach. This study showed that employee skills is a full mediator between relationship HRM and organizational performance. Therefore, HRM practices influence employee skills and its give impact to organizational performance for more effective and efficient in achieving organization goal.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 29-35 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.4.5


A Cross - Country Study on E - Government Interoperability Capability and E-Government Services

Nguyen Van Thanh, Hye-young Yoon, Junseok Hwang

Abstract Nowadays, e-Government is increasingly playing an important role in the development strategy of countries around the world, paying special attention to the field of E-Services. Countries' governments have invested a lot of money in developing e-Government, but the results have not been as effective as expected. The online service index (OSI) has differences between countries and territories. The main reason for this situation is that when developing e-Government development strategies, countries do not consider both technical factors and political, social and environmental factors. Limitations of literature are studies that are mostly focused on a specific country or countries but focus on only a few specific factors. The question is how and how the E-Government Interoperability capability can affect E-Service provision in different countries and territories around the world. Therefore, this paper will use Technology - Organization - Environment (TOE) method combined with secondary data source from the World Economic Forum's International Data Technology Report (WEF). After data analysis and evaluation, the final result reflects the growth of e-Government interoperability maturity (ICT Infrastructure, Human Capital, Electronic Participation) and ICT Legal environment have affect to e-service provision. Based on different characteristics and different compatibility, each country has a different online service development model. Finally, the contribution analysis, limitation and several recommendations are given, in order to help policy makers, Government Leaders and citizens understand the importance of the E-Government Interoperability capability, e-Services and thereby outline the specific roadmap and development strategy suitable for each country.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 36-44 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.4.6


Growth Performance of Primed Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Seeds in Arsenic Contaminated Soil

Erhenhi, A.H., Lemy, E.E., vwioko, D.E. And Okuhon, O.J.

Abstract This study was carried out to evaluate the growth performance of primed seeds of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) in arsenic contaminated soil using salicylic acid. Clemson spineless variety of okra purchased from Primier seed company, Benin City, Nigeria were subject to arsenic pollution at 50ppm, 100ppm and 150ppm treatment. The results showed that seed treatment with salicylic acid enhance germination and growth compared to non-treated seeds. Treated seeds grown in lower concentration (50ppm) had better performance in terms of germination (75%) compared to those grown in higher concentration (150ppm) which had 10% germination rate. Untreated seeds were observed to have highest percentage germination of 55% in the 50ppm arsenic polluted soil while 25% was recorded for the 150ppm arsenic polluted soil. Plant height, stem girth and leaf area of treated seeds also showed better compared to non-treated seeds. The study showed that application ant treatment of seeds with salicylic acid improved the germination and growth of okra seeds grown on arsenic acid polluted soil compared to untreated seeds. Hence, seed priming with different concentrations can be successfully used to improve the germination and seedling growth in okra seeds as well as other economic crops in contaminated soil.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 45-49 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.4.7


Germination Studies and Early Seedling Growth of Sphenostylis stenocarpa (Hochst. Ex A. Rich.) Harms Following Some Pretreatment Protocol for Enhanced Germination

Sam, S.M.

Abstract Germination and early seedling growth of Sphenostylis stenocarpa were studied to determine the most effective method of breaking the seed coat-dormancy. Sphenostylis stenocarpa seeds were treated with concentrated sulphuric acid (H2SO4), nitric acid (HNO3), hydrochloric acid (HCl), nicking and hot water for 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes. Chemical scarification with concentrated sulphuric acid at 5 seconds significantly (P<0.05) enhanced the germination and growth of Sphenostylis stenocarpa. The ratio of occurrence of small size (SS) to large size (LS) seeds Sphenostylis stenocarpa was 1:4. The small size seed has an average weight of 0.24 ± 0.05g while the large size seed has an average weight of 0.36 ± 0.08g. This study shows that sulphuric acid scarification is an effective method for breaking seed coat-imposed dormancy in Sphenostylis stenocarpa

[ FULL TEXT PDF 50-56 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.4.8