Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences

December 2018


Contamination Assessment of Heavy Metals in Road Dust of the University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Southeastern Nigeria

Ichu BC, Opara AI and Ibe FC

Abstract: Heavy metals concentration in the environment is increasingly becoming a health concern in the world for humans and a disruptor of the ecosystem. This is particularly observable in street dust of urban cities and settlements with high density traffic. Road dust samples were analyzed for determination of concentrations of the environmentally sensitive elements, Co, Cr, Cd, Ni, Pb, Fe, Mn and Zn in fraction of dust smaller than 100 μm. The dust particles were collected during the dry season along the road in office complexes, residential, construction sites, business centers and classroom areas representing different activities across the University of Nigeria Campus located in an urban city, Enugu, southeast Nigeria. The road dust was collected near the curb and 1 m from the curb on the road. The dust samples were measured for their heavy metal concentration and contamination levels. The assessment of heavy metal pollution was based on such geochemical models as single pollution indices (Contamination Factor and enrichment factor), integrated pollution index (degree of contamination (Dc)) and Pearson moment correlation in order to determine their possible source and spatial distribution. The results obtained after acid digestion and metal determination with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer gave the following mean values for Co, Mn, Zn, Ni and Fe: 11.53, 99.92, 221, 44.23 and 216 mg kg-1 respectively from samples near the curb and 12.37, 92.25, 248.87, 43.62 and 197.5 mg kg-1 respectively from samples 1 m from the curb. The mean values for the physico-chemical parameters obtained which include electrical conductivity (EC), pH and total organic matter (TOM) are 304μS/cm, 7.13, and 6.9% respectively from samples near the curb and 408μS/cm, 7.33 and 5.57% respectively for samples 1 m from the curb. The general pattern of occurrence of heavy metals on the two road positions follows a similar order of Zn>Fe>Mn>Ni>Co>Pb>Cd>Cr. The highest levels of Cr, Zn and Ni were found in the high traffic density areas, and strong positive correlations were found between these metals. These results suggest diverse origin of pollution sources which include human activities, vehicular emissions and lithogenic occurrences of the metals from road construction currently in some of the sites sampled.

DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.12.1


Effect of ethanol extract of Zapoteca portoricensis stem on testosterone-induced benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) in adult male albino rats

Joshua P.E., Ezugwu C.H., Chilaka F.C., Nwodo O.F.C., Dasofunjo K., Ezugwu M.U

Abstract: The effect of ethanol extract of Zapoteca portoricensis stem on testosterone-induced benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) in adult male albino rats was aimed at in this study. The percentage yield of the extract was determined to be 1.73% and the extract showed the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, saponins, phenols, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides and carotenoids as phyto constituents. A dose of 5000mg/kg body weight was found to be safe in the LD50 study of the extract. A total of 25 adult male albino rats (weighing 231-391g) were selected for this study and randomly divided into five groups (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5) of five animals per group. Group 1 served as the normal control, group 2 as the positive control, group 3 as the standard control and groups 4 and 5 as the test groups. Animals in group 2, 3, 4 and 5 were induced with BPH via daily subcutaneous injection of testosterone propionate (3mg/kgbwt) for 14 days and group 1 received subcutaneous injection of olive oil in place of the hormone for the same duration. After the induction, groups 1 and 2 received oral administration of 2 % v/v tween 80 solution and groups 3, 4 and 5 received oral administration of finasteride (10mg/kg), 100mg/kg extract and 200mg/kg extract respectively for 21 days. The oral administration of the extract showed a non-significant (P > 0.05) decrease in the mean body weight of the animals compared to that of the normal control group (group 1) and mean prostate weight decreased significantly (P < 0.05) when compared to that of the positive control group (group 2). There were significant (P < 0.05) decrease in mean relative prostate weight, lower increase in relative prostate weight and lower percentage increase in relative prostate weight of extract treated group animals compared to those of the positive control animals. However, the extract treated groups (4 and 5) showed higher percentage recovery of relative prostate weight (65.56 and 70 respectively) than that of group 2 (0). Testosterone levels of groups 4 and 5 animals significantly (P < 0.05) increased compared to those of group 2 and dihydrotestosterone level in the extract treated groups significantly (P < 0.05) decreased compared to that of group 2. The prolactin and prostate specific antigen concentrations of the test groups decreased significantly (P < 0.05) compared to those of the positive control group and likewise serum zinc concentration. The result of this study suggests that Zapoteca portoricensis stem extract has pharmacological effect in the treatment of induced BPH in animals.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 9-18 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.12.2


Fungicides and Forms of Application in Controlling the Colletotrichum Lindemuthianum in the Culture of Common Beans

Francielli Geremia, Rodrigo Bressiani, Claudia Manteli, Elouize Xavier, Larissa Corradi Voss, Rayanah Stival Svidzinski, Alberto Ricardo Stefeni.

Abstract: Anthracnose is one of the major diseases of the bean culture and causing major losses to the culture. The bad handling held by producers, not to acquire periodic seeds, lack of knowledge of technologies and control techniques further aggravate these losses. The objective was to evaluate the effect of fungicides used to control anthracnose in beans, relying on fungicides application stage and in mixtures used.The experiment conducted with the cultivar ANFC 9 in experimental field at União de Ensino do Sudoeste do Paraná (UNISEP), DoisVizinhos, PR in 2016. The experimental desing was a randomized block desing with 5 treatments and 4 replicates.The treatments used T1: none application; T2: V4: Oranis; V5: Oranis + Mertin; R8: Oranis + Mertin; T3: V4: Comet; V5: Comet + Chlorothalonil; R8: Comet + Chlorothalonil; T4: Oranis in V4, V5 and R8 stages;T5: V4: Oranis; V5: Oranis + Chlorothalonil; R8: Oranis + Chlorothalonil. The variables analyzed were incidence and severity of disease, plant height in the commercial maturation,insertion height of first pod, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, thousand grain weight and productivity.There was not anthracnose severity due to climate conditions. It was observed that the application of fungicides has positive results in grain weight and, therefore, in productivity.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 19-25 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.12.3


Indoor Air Quality and Prevalence of Sick Building Syndrome Among Office Workers in Umm Al-Qura University in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Mutasim Mohamed Khalafalla, Fadil Muhammad Banjar, Fowzi Omer Elamin, Ahmad Omar Babalghith, Adil Omar Bahathiq, Ashraf Adnan Al-Maimani,Tariq Sultan UL-Haq Pasha, Ramadan Ali Badran.

Abstract: In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia due to the harsh climatic conditions, especially high temperature and seasonal dusty storm, office building have extensively evolved to become tightly constructed and sealed with controlled environments. Therefore, office workers may be particularly at risk due to accumulation of indoor air pollutants. This study aimed to investigate the indoor air quality (IAQ) in offices and prevalence of sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms among office workers in the deanship of faculty members and employees affairs of Umm Al- Qura University. Furthermore, a comparison with an established benchmark was conducted to identify rooms for improvement.
The result shows that the measured levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) in offices of all sections were well within the limits described by the ASHRAE except in salaries section. Total volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in all sections exceeded Mølhave recommended value (200 μg/m3). Temperature levels were not within the threshold values specified by ASHRAE. However, relative humidity (RH) levels were well within the limits described by the ASHRAE in all sections. Particulate matter concentrations (PM2.5 and PM10) in offices of most sections exceeded both the maximum 24-h and annual mean limits provided by WHO and EPA. Growth of fungal and bacterial species was observed with variable counts in offices of all sections.
The SBS symptoms were assessed by using questionnaires. 93(92%) office workers responded to the questionnaire and the findings showed that running nose (14%) red eyes (19%), eye irritation (21%), fatigability (36%) headache (41%) and itch skin (15%) were the most prevalent SBS symptoms.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 26-31 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.12.4


Electrical Conductivity in Nutritive Solution and Influence on Hydroponic Production in Lettuce Culture (Lactuta sativa L.)

Victor Hugo Moraes, Pedro Rogerio. Giongo, Matheus Vinicius Abadia Ventura, Angelina Maria Marcomini Giongo, Thomas Jefferson Cavalcante, Bruno Henrique Tondato Arantes, Estevam Matheus Costa

Abstract: Food production at scale needed to meet today's need is a matter of enormous concern to the world. Hydroponics is a technique that has caused a growing world interest. The experiment was conducted in May and June 2013 under greenhouse conditions at the State University of Goias, Santa Helena de Goias campus. The experimental design was a randomized block design in a 3x7 factorial scheme with three replications, the first one factor: three commercial lettuce cultivars (American GL, Rafaela-Americana and Simpson Black Seed) and the second factor: seven EC concentrations, being 0.92, 2.00, 2.22, 2.99, 4.03, 4.41 and 5.02 μ The cultivars Americana GL, Rafaela Americana and Simpson Black Seed in the hydroponic cultivation system had their productive characteristics influenced by the EC concentrations between 0.92 and 5.02 μ The cultivars Rafaela A and Simpson BS show better performances in the ECs from 0.92 to 2.99 μ There is a propensity for better performances for the American GL cultivar, for the range of 2 to 4 μ The increase of the EC concentrations decreased the dry mass of the plants and the root length of the tested cultivars.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 32-35 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.12.5


Use of Remote Sensing in the Evaluation of the Behavior of Biophysical Variables in the Cerrado Biome.

Victor Hugo Moraes, Pedro Rogerio. Giongo, Thomas Jefferson Cavalcante, Angelina Maria Marcomini Giongo, Bruno Henrique Tondato Arantes, Estevam Matheus Costa, Matheus Vinicius Abadia Ventura

Abstract: The Cerrado is the second largest biome in South America, occupying an area of 2,036,448 km2, about 22% of the national territory. In the cerrado, changes in the behavior of biophysical variables such as vegetation index, surface temperature, precipitation and evapotranspiration and through remote sensing techniques have been used in temporal studies of changes in soil cover changes. Currently there are several remote sensors with different spatial, temporal and spectral resolutions, such as the products: MOD11 - Surface temperature; MOD16 - Evapotranspiration; MOD13 - Index of vegetation; TRMM - Precipitation. This study aims to evaluate the impact of land use change on the patterns of change of biophysical variables in regions of the Cerrado Biome. The work was developed in the region of the Cerrado biome, contemplating an extensive area of wide heterogeneity and natural cover. The choice of specific areas of study was based on data overlap of areas occupied by cerrado, pasture, sugarcane, eucalyptus and annual crops. Selection of MODIS data was performed according to the temporal availability of each product (8, 16 days or monthly). And it can be concluded that the vegetation index had an annual average reduction only in the transition from the cerrado to the annual harvest, the surface temperature had an increase in its average, only when the cerrado is changed to annual crop, annual average evapotranspiration increased in all transitions, and the average annual rainfall increased when the annual transition to sugarcane and the cerrado for annual cultivation.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 36-40 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.12.6


Night Bars on the Coast of Paraná- Brazil: A Brief Overview on Consumption

Adilson Anacleto, Vanessa Cristina Avelino, Juliana Sawada de Medeiros, Andressa Henseler Luciani de Oliveira, Bruno Henrique Araújo Silva

Abstract: Paraná Coast is a region with tourist interest and it has hundreds of companies, and in this context, nightclubs have relevant economic importance. However, in the last decades several establishments have decreed bankruptcy. In addition, regarding to Paraná Coast in relation to nightclubs, there is a lack of studies on this segment, and in order to be able to find elements that explain this trend, it was carried out a study that sought to diagnose the nightclubs consumers’ profile and behavior. A descriptive exploratory survey was conducted between July and August 2018, directed at 207 consumers, over 18 years old, who attend nightclubs from the Paraná Coast main city, Paranaguá. The results showed that nightclubs clients in Paraná Coast were mostly women (n-59%), and the average age group independent of the gender was 27 years old. The study concluded that the consumers' perceptions related to the competitive differentials that should be present in nightclubs, were: service quality (n= 71.98%), followed by the pleasant environment (n= 66.18%), and price (n= 60%). In addition, they pointed out the factors that caused the rejection to the establishment, being: places with a lot of people, delayed service. The main factors that affected consumption behavior in nightclubs along the Paraná Coast were: the civil status, income and age, and it was observed a lower presence of the public with greater spending power (class A and B), and in this case it could be adopted a relationship marketing processes as an alternative to increase the presence of this public in the region nightclubs.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 41-45 ]
DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.12.7


Creativity in Marketing Creative Business Enterprises in Gorontalo City

Radia Hafid

Abstract: MSMEs and creative industries have a very strategic role in national development and economic growth. Creative industries in Gorontalo city are dominated by three sub-sectors of industry, namely the culinary creative industry, the creative industries of fashion and the handicraft industry. The hypothesis developed from this study is First, Creativity and marketing have an effect simultaneously on the creative industry. Second, creativity has a partial effect on the creative industry. Third, Marketing has a partial effect on the creative industry and, Fourth, Creativity has a dominant influence on the creative industry. The method used in this study is expanatory research to explain the influence between variables with multiple linear analysis approaches on the object of research in the creative industry in Gorontalo City. The results of the regression analysis partially show that there is a simultaneous influence between the creativity variable (X1) and marketing variable (X2) on the creative industry, the creativity variable (X1) has a significant effect on the creative industry by 41.7% and the marketing variable (X2) has a significant effect towards the creative industry by 52.1%, the results of regression testing indicate that the marketing variable has more influence on the creative industry than the creativity variable.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 46-50 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.12.8


Carrot Roots as Clean and Sustainable Biocatalyst for Obtaining Natural Menthol

Felipe de Oliveira Souza, Rogério Aparecido Minini dos Santos, Arildo José Braz de Oliveira, Regina Aparecida Correia Gonçalves, Caio Franco de Araújo Almeida Campo, José Eduardo Gonçalves

Abstract: Biotransformation using whole plant cells is an area of green chemistry that has the purpose of minimizing impacts to the environment, coupled with the characteristics of high selectivity, chemo, regio and stereoselective reactions. The objective of the present work is the sustainable synthesis of menthol by biocatalysis through the bioreduction reaction of prochiral ketones present in the EOMP (Essential oil of Mentha piperita L.) mediated by reductase enzymes contained in carrot cells (Daucus carota). The substrates and the carrot biomass were taken to the Orbital Shaker at 35 Cº, 150 rpm, where they remained for 72 hours. At each 24-hour, 2 ml aliquots of the erlenmeyers were collected for reaction follow-up, the aliquots were transferred into test tubes and mixed with 1 mL of ethyl acetate (EtOAc). The organic fraction was analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). After the D. carota bioreduction reaction, the menthol contained in the essential oil of Mentha piperita L. raised from 46 to 82% by bioreduction of the carbonyl monoterpenes naturally present in the essential oil of Mentha piperita L., demonstrating the capacity of sustainable and efficient biotransformation of D. carota even in a complex matrix such as EOMP.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 51-54 ]
DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.12.9


Block of mineral salt in the diet of sheep and lambs and their effects on health and performance

Sarita Bonagurio Gallo, Thais Brochado, Felipe José Corrado Kyomen, Luciano Brochine

Abstract: The objective of the study was to assess the effects of consumption of mineral salt blocks on the performance and the hematologic and biochemical parameters of sheep and lambs animals kept in tropical conditions. The study was divided into two field experiments. The first experiment used a total of 44 hair sheep of the Santa Ines breed, which were maintained under Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu grazing system. Animals were randomly assigned to two treatments to received mineral supplementation as: a) powder or b) block of mineral salt; and consumption and hematological and biochemical blood parameters were assessed. In the second experiment, lambs divided equally, similar to experiment 1, and performance and carcass quality parameters were assessed. Sheep and lambs consumed less mineral supplementation in multi-nutritional block format (P<0.05); however, the hematological and biochemical blood parameters were not affected by the form of the mineral supplementation offered (P>0.05). Carcass characteristics were also not affected by the form of mineral supplementation form (P>0.05). Multi-nutritional block was well accepted by sheep and lambs and did not affect health and performance of the animals; thus, it could be recommended as an alternative to the powder mineral supplementation. The product was easy to use as a supplement for grazing or stall-fed animals.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 55-60 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.12.10


"The Application of Dynamic Up – Flow Sand Filtration in Water Sludge Treatment"

Ibrahim, M.K.M, Abd el azeem, M.M.A, Aly, O.H.I, Ahmed, H.M.H

Abstract: In Egypt, Surface water treatment plants produce more than 100 million tons of sludge per year. Disposal of these massive quantities of sludge are discharged into natural water bodies. This study assessed the possibility to use the dynamic up flow sand filtration system (Dyna Sand) as a new technique successfully applied in different countries for water and wastewater from different sources in water sludge treatment.
The current study was held to evaluate and examine the efficiency of using dynamic up flow sand filter to treat water works sludge that are produced from the surface water purification in conventional water treatment plants WTPs at different operation conditions. The study was held at Elfostat water treatment plant in Dar Elsalam located in south of Cairo. The study was carried out to examine the performance of the existing conventional system in handling WTS. The samples were collected from the sludge tanks in the plant. Moreover, samples were taken after the Dyna Sand to examine and prove the success of the filter. The parameters measured to assess the filter were Turbidity, BOD, Residual Aluminum, Algae, Total Bacterial Count and Total Suspended Solids.
The filter showed high removal efficiency in eliminating these parameters. The treatment plant effluent resulted highly rates of impurities. The removal efficiency of turbidity reached 94 %, while for Total Suspended Solids 90 %. For Algae the removal efficiency was found to be 97% and for Bio chemical Oxygen Demand it was 84%. After Filtration by dynamic up flow sand filter most of these impurities were removed, thus the effluent is complying with the ministry of health requirements for raw drinking water.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 61-66 ]
DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.12.11


Local Productive Arrangement of Non-Wood Forest Products in Paraná Coast, Brazil, Between Ascension and Decline

Adilson Anacleto, Anna Paula de Araújo Bornancin

Abstract: The Paraná Coast since the 1970s had a strong relationship with NWFP (non-wood forest products) extraction with commercial purposes, and from this activity survived more than 1,500 families in the region during the period of highest ascension of the activity. From the 90's began the decline of activity and the exodus of families to large urban centers. In this perspective, this study aimed to present a current diagnosis of NWFP extractivism, identifying the main implications of the activity for families that the NWFP is the main income source. Thus, descriptive exploratory research was carried out, and in the total were identified 127 families, and from this total, representatives from 14 families participated in the elaboration of a DRP – Participative Rural Diagnosis between June and November of 2017. The species of greatest commercial value reported by the interviewees were orchids, bromeliads, ferns and several medicinal herbs. The study concluded that from the 127 families identified, 75 dropped out the activity and joined to the rural exodus which reached levels of reduction of 60% of people who lived in the communities in just two decades. The main factors in the external context that contributed to the decline of NWFP APL in Paraná Coast were: lack of legislation on sustainable extractivism (n=20.02%), low government support for cultivation introduction (n=16.73%), lack of credit lines that could be accessed by communities (n=11.44%). The main factors in the internal context that contributed to the productive arrangement decline were: lack of crops legalization (n=30.01%), lack of agronomic knowledge about the species with the greatest productive potential (N=9.01%), strong dependence on few middlemen (n=8.99%). The scenario results in a perverse cycle where the communities, because they are impoverished and have low capacity for organization, were invisible to the public power, and because they were invisible to the public power they were still impoverished. It was concluded that the combination of negative factors simultaneously led to a strong rural exodus, and it is urgent that debates be raised on the possible ways in which impoverished rural communities can organize themselves and collectively strengthen their actions, obtaining greater bargaining power with the several levels of public power in order to promote rural development.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 67-71 ]
DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.12.12


Phenol adsorption on Ca / TiO2 catalysts

Christian Appia, Tchirioua Ekou, Lynda Ekou and Mamadou Dagnogo

Abstract: Nowadays, the problem of the contamination of water by the phenolic compounds worries more and more. Faced with this growing concern, it is therefore necessary to develop new high-performance materials capable of meeting the requirements related to sustainable development and the preservation of the ecosystem. In this study, heterogeneous monometallic catalysts (X%Ca/TiO2) were synthesized to eliminate the phenol by the technique of adsorption. The effects of the pH of catalysts and the content of metal calcium were studied. The commercial support (TiO2 P25) calcined and the catalyst 4%Ca/TiO2 synthesized were characterized by BET adsorption-desorption of N2, spectroscopy FTIR and the AAS. The effects of the content of calcium (Ca), of time, the mass of the absorbent, the concentration, stirring velocity and the performance of catalyst were studied. The catalyst 4%Ca/TiO2 was calcined with 400°C during 4 hours in a muffle furnace. In this work, the results showed that the catalysts 5%Ca/TiO2 had the most raised rates of adsorption of calcium and reached a maximum with pH=5. The time of contact is obtained as from 90 minutes of contact. Thus, a time of two (2) hours contact was selected for the following experiments. It should also be noted that the values of the pseudo-second-order model are very close to the values determined experimentally, that means that the pseudo-second-order model is adequate, the adsorption reaction of phenol would be a chemisorption. In addition, the amount adsorbed phenol increased with the catalyst mass and the initial phenol concentration. The adsorption of phenol on catalysts would be supported by an increase speed. Then, the negative values of ΔG°, suggested that the process of adsorption of phenol was spontaneous and that the degree of spontaneousness of the reaction increased with the temperature. The results showed that after 5 tests (reuse tests), 4%Ca/TiO2 catalyst always has a high catalytic activity to elimination phenol at 72% in 2 hours. The adsorption of phenol on the different catalysts from 1% to 5%Ca/TiO2 made it possible to show that the catalyst 4%Ca/TiO2 gave a better result.

[FULL TEXT PDF 72-82 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.12.13


Biosorption of Methylene Blue and Orange II on deactivated lichen Parmotrema dilatatum : Modeling and kinetic studies

Kouassi Kouadio Dobi-Brice, Ekou Lynda, Ekou Tchirioua, Yacouba Zoungranan

Abstract: The flowering of industrial activities is generally accompanied by a phenomenon of effluent discharges containing many dangerous chemical substances. These water pollutants include Methylene Blue (BM) and Orange II (OII), which can cause human health problems and disrupt the balance of the aquatic system. Several effluent treatment methods exist but remain expensive and therefore inaccessible for developing countries such as Côte d'Ivoire.
The present work aims at the adsorption removal of these two toxic dyes on inexpensive plant biomass in this case deactivated lichens.
The various parameters influencing the adsorption such as the contact time, the initial concentration of the solution and the temperature, were studied. The kinetic study has shown that the biosorption process of BM and OII suitably follows pseudo-order two kinetics. The adsorption isotherms have shown that biosorption of BM is best described by the Freundlich model and that of OII by the Langmuir model. The thermodynamic study of the lichen-dye system showed that the adsorption process of the two dyes is spontaneous, endothermic for BM and exothermic for OII. The results obtained suggested a process of chemisorption and physisorption.
These results show the possibility of treatment of colored effluents by lichens.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 83-89 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.12.14


Efficacy of Sewage Treatment Plant near Pokhribal Site of Nigeen Basin

Faizanul Mukhtara, Hamida Chistia, Nawaz Ahmad Mirb , Shabir Ahmad Bhatb

Abstract: Water quality monitoring has been high priority to determine the current conditions of the water system. The present study has been undertaken to evaluate the performance of the Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) located near Pokhribal site of Nigeen basin. Sewage samples were collected and analyses were undertaken for raw sewage entering the STP and treated one discharged at the site. Various physico-chemical parameters were checked and the efficacy of the STP for many parameters was evaluated. . It was found that the efficiency of the STP in respect of turbidity was 63.52%, total hardness 7.10%, total alkalinity 22.81%, COD 71.98%, BOD 75.20%, Ca 17.64% etc.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 90-93 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.12.15


Factors Affecting the Usability of Laboratory Information System used in Libyan Hospitals by using Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)

Said Milad Mohmed Rabha, Gülşah Hançerlioğulları Köksalmış, Aybaba Hançerlioğullari

Abstract: Information system research can help the industry improve their service management and coordination via a successful information technology (IT) implementation. Many hospitals have implemented various healthcare IT, such as Laboratory Information System (LIS), in order to deal with paperless and filmless operation requirements. An LIS is necessary to manage the flow of information between health care providers, patients, and laboratories and should be designed to optimize not only laboratory operations but also personalized clinical care. The objecvtive of this study is to analyze and integrate several factors impacting the acceptance and usability of the laboratory information system (LIS) used at Libyan Hospitals. In the light of Technology Acceptance model (TAM), and extending it to seven external variables including computer anxiety, self-efficacy, user interface design, training, age, educational level and system experience. For this purpose, quantitative research was chosen for examining the research model, and the data were obtained from technicians, chemists, and physicians using the Laboratory Information System (LIS). The sample size is (N=250); therefore, the data were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to analyze the relationship between explanatory factors and actual use of LIS. SmartPLS software was utilized to analyze the data and test the hypotheses. The results indicate that actual use of laboratory information system significantly and positively affected by behavioral intention, education level, interface design, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, training, system experience. Moreover, computer anxiety and elder age significantly and negatively affect actual use of LIS. The implications of the outcomes are discussed, and suggestions for future research are made.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 94-103 ]
DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.12.16


Emotional Adjustment in Adolescent Interpersonal Attachment and Psychological Distress

Hooman Mehrani, Abdolhassan Farhangi

Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to test the mediating role of the emotional adjustment ability of the middle school students in their interpersonal attachment and psychological distress. To do so 1586 students are conducted in this research. The results show that there is a significant negative correlation between self-reported behavior and depression. On the other hand, the dependence on father and mother and attachment to escape can be directly influencing self-reporting psychological distress, and indirectly affecting self-confidence psychological distress through emotional regulation. And the attachment anxiety to friends can be directly and indirectly influence self-reporting mental distress through emotional regulation. However, unlike expectations, friends attach to evade self-reporting for young people. The overall effect of psychological distress is not significant. The results of this study also show that there is a relationship between parental attachment and peer attachment and psychological distress among adolescents.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 104-107 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.12.17


Performance of the global Geo-Potential models over Egypt

Mostafa H. A. Mohamed

Abstract: The recent Global Geo-potential Models (GGMs) achieve a huge upturn in geomatics application and geoid modeling. In order to increase the accuracy of a geoid model, a precise Global Geopotential Model (GGM) is needed. This paper aimed to investigate the accuracy assessment of the most recent GGMs over Egypt referenced to differential GPS terrestrial ground control points with knowing orthometric height. Five GGMs were selected for this study where, the GGMs are SGG-UGM-1 (2159), EIGEN-5C (360), EGM 2008 (2190), AIUB-CHAMP01S (70) and EGM 96 (360). The obtained results concluded that SGG-UGM-1 is almost the same accuracy with EGM 2008 GGM which include a GRACE data. The both GGMs models were best fits to Egypt local gravity.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 108-112 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.12.18


Assessment the impact of covering a part of watercourse by pipe

Zahraa T. Shahat, Ashraf S. Ellean, Hossam M. Sief, Mohammed F. Sobeih

Abstract: This experimental investigates the effect of coverage a part of watercourses with varies blocking ratio and discharges. The research includes 52 test runs with three inner diameter of the circular coverage (10, 12, and 14.5) cm, four tested blocking ratio of the pipe (0, 10, 20, and 30%) and four discharges (2,5,8 and 11)Lit/sec.
The water surface profile and shape of the developed scoured holes downstream the coverage at each scenario were recorded. Based on the analysis, it could be concluded that the heading up is directly proportional, so it is recommended to carry out continuous maintenance for removing the upstream blocking. To avoid the sharp increase in the heading up (hu), it is recommended to keep the maximum allowable inlet area of coverage per wetted area of canal upstream coverage (ratio of relative area) As/Ao less than 5 %. Empirical equations were developed to describe the relationships between the characteristics of scour (the length and the depth), and flow characteristics (discharge, velocity and heading up).

[ FULL TEXT PDF 113-120 ]
DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.12.19


Utilization of Ginger Powder (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) in Functional Food Production

Sara M.S. Awad

Abstract The aim of this study is to utilize of ginger powder (GP) (Zingiber officinale Roscoe ) in preparation of both cakes ( 3.0 and 6.0 %) and beef burgers (1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 %), respectively. Wheat flour 72% and 82% extraction was used in cakes. Also, chemical, physical, microbiological and sensory evaluation were investigated. In addition, beef burgers freezing and frozen storage period at -180c for three months. Results indicated that prepared cake formulae is considered as a good sources of crude fibers and ash content. Also, ginger powder was improved extensograph and farinograph parameters. Physical properties (weight, volume and specific weight) volume were improved due to the addition the gingers. Sensory evaluation was recorded highly acceptability score by the panelists, but formula which contained 3.0% GP was the best results. TBA values of prepared beef burgers showed that there are significant differences (p≤0.05) between control and other treatments. TBA values were decreased as the level of GP increased. The results of total bacterial counts were permissible limits and safe for human consumption. It could be concluded that ginger powder is considered as a good antioxidants and antimicrobial effect. Moreover, it could be used GP as functional foods.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 121-130 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.12.20


Artifact in the Image of Ultrasound

Adil Ismail Nasir

Abstract The aim of our study is to explain the physics of ultrasound in which it represented the key to understanding the artifacts. Since the artifacts also obey the same physical principles, and the ability of a radiologist to understand the fundamental physics of ultrasound, recognize common US artifacts, and provide recommendations for altering the imaging technique. it may be difficult to eliminate them. Patient and Methods This is an exploratory study carried out in the specialized medical hospital in Iraq from October 2016 to July 2017 on patients attending to the emergency department and examined by Ultrasound Machine type Philips,all patients undergo a full abdominal examination. More than (35) images have been collected from (departments of radiology). The Sonar- images which contained a spectrum of artifacts were classified according to the type of artifact, the region of exam such as (abdomen, chest, head, pelvic, neck, etc.) and the causative agent, as shown in table (1, 2). The study included the common artifacts presents in conventional and Doppler sonography used in medicine. Result Ultrasound imaging artifacts of acoustic origin associated with the resolution and path of propagation and attenuation are reviewed. The lateral and coarse lateral limits are of a complex nature, as failure to solve means losing details and two adjacent constructs can be visualized as one. The apparent resolution near the transformer (s) is not directly related to the tissue texture, but is due to the interference effects of dispersal of the dispersants in the tissues. The echoes produce a range of echoes of equal artifacts that diverge into real reflectors. The tool for the displayed images represents objects displayed on one side of a powerful reflector, which appear on the other side as well. Shading and refinement of useful antiques to determine the nature of the masses. Improvements result in low attenuation objects in the audio path while shading results from highly reflective or highly attenuated objects. Additional artifacts include section thickness, refraction, multiple pathways, side lobe, grating lobe, focal reinforcement, comet tail, ring down, speed error, and range ambiguity. The key to understanding artifacts is the physical basis of ultrasound imaging. It may be difficult to eliminate artifacts, because it also obeys the same physical principles. Conclusions Sonographers or Ultrasonography who have a good understanding of ultrasound, including ultrasound, how they are produced, how a picture is created, can educate clients and other members of the medical health care team more effectively, and ultimately, increase the quality of care. Technicians may also wish to expand their basic knowledge of ultrasound as part of their education and training to increase their abilities and responsibilities. The ultrasound detected a change in the adverse local tissue reaction (ALTR) size and degree difference with a higher resolution and higher agreement with MRI compared to the initial assessment, indicating that the ultrasound is valid and useful Just as ultrasound is performed by professionals in human medicine, it is likely that this imaging technique will someday be a common skill for Sonographers or Ultrasonography, giving more time for the Phycsions to interpret images and treat the patient. The operator can be alerted to the possibility of technical presence, and how to identify it only through appropriate education and experience, where it is easy to identify the Doppler effects in general and can provide evidence of diagnosis if interpreted correctly. It is essential in making ultrasonography (US) a clinically useful imaging modality and also understanding the physical basis of US image formation is critical to understanding US artifacts and thus proper image interpretation.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 131-143 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.12.21