Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences

February 2019


Carbon Sequestration Potential of Traditionally Managed Forest: Contributions to Climate Change Mitigation, Ethiopia

Samuel Tizazu Agidew, Alemayehu Hailemicael Mezgebe

Abstract Natural forests can sequester huge amount of carbon thereby contributing towards climate change mitigation efforts. The purpose of the study was to estimate the carbon sequestration potentials of traditionally managed Shawo sacred forest so that its role in climate change mitigation could be recognized and valorized. Both primary and secondary sources were used to achieve the objectives. The analysis of this study was carried out using both qualitative and quantitative techniques. Descriptive research design was employed. Systematic sampling method was used to collect data of biomass along transect lines having systematically established plots of different carbon pools. Results revealed the presence of 16 plant species in Shawo forest. The average Diameter Breast Height (DBH) and Height (H) value of the plants was 9.21 cm and 10.43 m, respectively. The total mean carbon density was 514.52 t/ha (1888.31 CO2 equivalents). Of the total carbon pools, plants share was 385.39 t/ha (1414.39 CO2 equivalents). Litter, herbs and grasses (LHGs) account 1.69 t/ha (6.21 CO2 equivalents). The soil organic carbon (SOC) up to 30 cm depth was 127.44 t/ha (467.60 CO2 equivalents). The overall forest area of the study site has sequestered an estimated amount of 66,887.6 tons of carbon (245,254.53 CO2 equivalents). In conclusion, the community surrounding Shawo forest has unique traditional forest conservation practices. Hence, carbon finance programs that recognize and valorize the community climate change mitigation efforts need to be considered.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-11 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.2.1


Study of CO2 Flow and Energy Balance in a Transition Forest in Southwestern Amazonia by the Modified Bowen Ratio Methods and Eddy Covariance

Pereira, O.A.; Danelichen, V.H.M.; Nogueira, J.S.; De Musis, C.R.; Pinto Jr, O.B.; Vourlitis, G.

Abstract Background: The study of CO2 fluxes and energy between the surface and the atmosphere, contribute to investigate natural or anthropic effects on ecosystems. Meteorological and micrometeorological stations are usually equipped with instruments capable of measuring these flows directly or indirectly, using Eddy Covariance (EC) and Modified Bowen Ratio (MBR) methods, respectively. The coefficients of turbulent diffusivity are physical quantities directly correlated to magnitudes of flows, and difficult to measure. Objective: The objective of this work was to evaluate the use of turbulent diffusivity coefficients in CO2 flux estimates for the (MBR) method. Methods: The experiment was conducted in Amazonia / Cerrado transition forest, where a meteorological tower was installed. The fluxes of CO2, latent and sensitive heat obtained by the EC and MBR methods were compared by the Scheirer-Ray-Hare statistical test to detect possible differences between flows, seasons, and methods. The CO2 flux, estimated by the Modified Bowen Ratio method, was tested as a function of turbulent diffusion coefficients of sensible and latent heat. Results: In both Bowen ratio and Eddy Covariance methods, available net energy prioritized the latent heat flux during the dry season. The energy balance by Eddy Covariance method was underestimated in 30% in the humid season and 5% in the dry season. The energy balance by the Bowen ratio method closed at 100% during the dry season, but during the wet season it was underestimated at 4%. Conclusion: The CO2 fluxes measured by the Eddy Covariance method and estimated by the Modified Bowen Ratio method as a function of the latent heat turbulent diffusion coefficient, did not show significant differences between their estimates, between the seasons and between the methods. The sensible heat flux showed significant difference between the methods of Bowen ratio and Eddy Covariance, and between the seasons.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 12-18 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.2.2


The effect of Shea butter wastes on Physical Properties of Compressed Earth Bricks (CEB) and Cement Stabilized

*Alfred Niamien Kouamé, Bi Irié Hervé Gouré Doubi, Léon Koffi Konan, Monique Tognonvi, Samuel Oyetola

Abstract The search for new types of low-cost, low-energy building materials has sparked renewed interest in recent years. It is with this in mind that a new category of compressed earth brick reinforced in agro-industrial wastes and likely to be "eco-sustainable" materials has been developed. This work aims to study the impact of the shea butter wastes rate on the thermal conductivity and Young's modulus of cement stabilized CEB. To do this, three clay materials noted F, K and Y have been characterized and used to produce CEB. The physico chemical characterization of these raw materials reveals that they consist mainly of kaolinite, quartz, iron compounds and micaceous phases. The geotechnical tests have revealed that the clay materials F and K belong to class A2 soils while Y class A3. Subsequently, earth bricks with different compositions in mass percentage of clay and shea butter wastes, stabilized with 5% of cement were made by compaction at 40 MPa. The thermal conductivity of the materials made, measured by the Hot Disk method, revealed a decrease in conductivity of 25% for formulations with clay F, 16% for formulations with clay K and 22% for formulations with clay Y, when shea butter wastes contents go from 0 to 10%. Likewise, a decrease in the density of the CEB was observed. Young's modulus results determined through ultrasound showed good rigidity when clay soil is substituted with shea butter wastes of up to 6% for formulations with F and Y and up to 8% for formulations with K. The strengthening of CEB stabilized with a small amount of cement to shea butter wastes improves their thermal insulation properties.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 19-26 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.2.3


Microanalysis and Scanning Electron Microscopic Study of Resin Infiltration and Fluoride Varnish on Early Proximal Caries Lesions

Shimaa T. Ibrahim, Hisham I. Othman, Adel M. Abdel-Azim, Wael Elias, Aliaa O. Lotfy, Rita M. Khounganian

Abstract Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of resin infiltration, fluoride varnish, and a combination of fluoride and resin infiltration after the induction of caries-like lesions on extracted human premolars. Material and methods: Sixty extracted human premolars for orthodontic reasons were sectioned in a buccolingual direction into two halves using isomet low speed saw, creating 120 specimens in total. Each specimen was immersed in demineralizing solution for 4 days to induce caries-like lesion then thermocycled in artificial saliva. Only teeth with International Caries Detection and Assessment System code 2 were selected. The specimens were randomly assigned into four groups, Group A (control n=30), Group B (treated with Infiltration Concept [Icon®]; n = 30), Group C (treated with Icon® + Duraphat fluoride; n = 30), Group D (treated with Duraphat fluoride; n = 30). All groups were examined by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The data were analyzed using SPSS and R. Result: In group A (Control), the enamel surface showed irregular pitted rough surface with multiple superficial cavities with different etching patterns. In Group B (Infiltration Concept [Icon®]), the enamel surface showed partial blockage of the enamel rods with resin infiltration and irregular surface, whereas in Group C (Icon®+ Duraphat fluoride) the surface was homogeneous with the presence of a hypermineralized layer and complete obliteration of the microporosities. In Group D (Duraphat fluoride), the surfaces were rough and partially blocked with fluorapatite crystals. Elemental analysis revealed significant calcium and phosphorus levels in Group B in comparison with the other groups. Conclusion: A combination of resin infiltration and fluoride varnish were efficacious in the treatment of early proximal lesions by improving the surface texture and achieving significant remineralization of the tooth surface.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 27-35 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.2.4


High Speed Low Power 1D DTCWT Accelerator for 3D DTCWT Architecture Design for Plant Pheno typing Video Encoding

Yashavantha kumar ,T. R, Pinjare S. L, Cyril Prasanna Raj. P

Abstract Video data acquired for plant phenotyping applications need to be compressed for data storage and data transmission. Video data comprising multiple frames are decomposed into wavelet sub bands using 3D Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). Computation complexity of 3D DWT for hardware implementation is addressed by use of lifting scheme. With limitations of DWT in terms of shift variance and directional selectivity, Dual Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DTCWT) is replacing DWT for image compression and image processing applications. Computation complexities of DTCWT processing need to be addressed with use of improved methods for data processing. In this work, novel algorithm for 1D DTCWT computation is designed with reduced hardware complexity that accelerates data computation and hence is used in design of 3D DTCWT computation. The 3D DTCWT architecture design reduces arithmetic unit and memory unit for 3D DWT computation. VLSI implementation of the proposed architecture achieves 38% improvement in power and operates at a maximum frequency of 328 MHz and is suitable for real time video compression. The proposed algorithm is suitable for real time plant phenotyping compression applications.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 36-45 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.2.5


Metric and Non metric characteristics of human forefoot: A radiological study in Egyptian population

Samah Mohammed, Mahmoud Abozaid and Fatma Elzahraa, Fouad Abd Elbaky

Abstract Human forefoot is composed of metatarsal bones and phalanges. Their morphology and dimensions are important for proper bipedal locomotor function. Structural defects affecting forefoot bones result in foot dysfunction. The aim of the present study is to describe the morphology of the bones of forefoot and to measure their lengths and widths. A digital radiographic study was conducted on right and left feet of 100 healthy individuals (50 males and 50 females) above 21 years old. Inspection of the forefoot bones using radiographs was done to describe general shapes of bones. The lengths and widths of metatarsal bone and phalanges were measured using Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) format. Mean and standard deviations were obtained for all measurements of each side of both sexes. Morphological dissimilarities were reported for middle phalanx. Overall, there was a moderate to strong correlation between metatarsals regarding lengths and widths. Most of forefoot bones were longer and wider in males than females. This research highlighted the value of metric measurements of forefoot bones for surgical procedures or sex recognition.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 46-54 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.2.6


Sensitive Analysis of Soft Crab Meat on Paraná Coast- Brazil

Adilson Anacleto, Clarice Luiz do Rosário, Gustavo França da Costa, Leonardo de Almeida Ladevig, Suzan Alves Maia

Abstract Fishing is an activity with a significant economic importance in Paraná Coast. In the last decades, the soft crab fishery has been reported as a relevant income alternative in small fishing communities in that region. Among the several types of catching this crustacean there are the soft crab capture along with the trawling of shrimp nets and also in a handcraft way with the use of cages. However, despite the relevance of the activity to the more distant fishing communities, there are few and sparse studies on the quality of the soft crab meat offered in the market. Thus, this study aimed to obtain data on the preference of consumers for the appearance, color, aroma and flavor of the soft crab meat through sensory analysis, with the objective of producing information for small fishermen in order to increase the market competitiveness for this product. Four samples from the most important producing regions in Paraná Coast were used in a blind test. All samples were prepared in a similar and concomitant manner. The analysis was applied to 20 individuals, with the possibility of eating one of the four samples each one at a time and then give the grade, proceeding to the next sample, until all grades were properly attributed. The homogeneity of the variances was determined by the Bartlett test, and for the comparison of scores averages assigned in the sensory evaluation, the Tukey test was used at the 0.05 level of probability. The study concluded that the samples evaluated do not differ statistically from one another in the blind test in terms of appearance, color and aroma, but the taste of the soft crab meat is the main factor that influences this product consumption, and in this case showed differences between the samples evaluated. The soft crab meat caught in cages when evaluated in the blind test received the best grades when compared to the other samples analyzed, named as soft crab meat obtained from canoes and soft crab meat obtained from deep-sea fishing. The capture system in relation to the size of the crustaceans, the refrigerated conservation form and the beneficiation system may be the main influencing factors in the increase of the soft crab meat quality among the evaluated samples.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 55-59 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.2.7


Effect of the various post and core systems in the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth: In-vitro study

Tarek R. Abdelrehim, Essam A Khedr

Abstract Background: The effect of different post and core systems on the fracture resistance of ceramic crowns placed on endodontically treated teeth has not been clearly recognized. Dentists usually select post and core system that supply best retention, support and decrease the possibility of root fracture. Objectives: The aim of this in-vitro study was to evaluate the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with various post and core systems. The post and core systems used were fiber post,carbon fiber, zirconia and cast post and core. Compressive test was performed until fracture occurred. The fracture resistance of each specimen was recorded. Statistical analysis was completed using (SPSS/version 20) software. Numerical data were defined using mean and standard deviation for normally distributed data. Comparison between more than two populations was analyzed using F-test (ANOVA) followed by Post Hoc test “by Tukey method” to detect the level of significant between each two groups Results: The fracture resistance of fiber post and core, carbon fiber post was 566.3 N and 549.2 N respectively. For cast post and core it was 532.2 N. Teeth restored with zirconia post showed fracture resistance of 426.3 N.Conclusion: it can be concluded that teeth restored with fiber post showed the highest resistance to fracture, while that restored with zirconia post showed lower fracture resistance. Teeth restored with fiber post, carbon fiber and cast posts showed no statistically significant difference in their fracture resistance.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 60-63 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.2.8


Productivity and Biochemical Characteristics of Sugarcane When Submitted to the Action of Chemical Ripeners

Ronaldo da Silva Viana, Lucas Aparecido Manzani Lisboa, Paulo Alexandre Monteiro Figueiredo, Sérgio Bispo Ramos, Samuel Ferrari, André May, Evandro Pereira Prado, Celso Tadao Miasaki, Igor da Silva Ferreira, Jeruska Azevedo Moreira Brenha

Abstract The utilization of chemical ripeners is an important tool, since they are applied to accelerate the maturation process, enhance raw material quality, optimize agro industrial and economic results, and help crop planning, allowing essential crop management in a modern production system. The objective of this study was to evaluate agricultural productivity and biochemical characteristics of the sugarcane when submitted to the application of chemical ripeners in different crop years. The experimental design utilized randomized blocks arranged in split split plots. The main plots consisted of the application of the following products with their respective doses: control (C) (without application), sulfomethuron-methyl (0.02 kg ha-1) + glyphosate (0.15 L ha-1) (SG), ethephon (0.34 L h-1) + glyphosate (0.15 L ha-1) (EG), glyphosate (0.35 L h-1) (G), compounds of organic carboxylic radicals (1.0 L h-1) + glyphosate (0.15 L h-1) (CG). The subplots were composed of evaluation times: 0, 15, and 30 days after application of the products. The sub-subplots consisted of two crop years, 2008 and 2009. In the evaluations, the levels of brix levels, pol, reducing sugars, total reducing sugars, fiber, purity, humidity, recoverable theoretical sugar, tons of Culms per hectare and tons of sugar per hectare, shikimic and salicylic acids. The application of CG showed better results for sugarcane technological characteristics on the 30th day after application. 0.35 L ha-1 of glyphosate favored an increase in the concentrations of shikimic and salicylic acids. The application of a mixture of compounds of organic carboxylic radicals + glyphosate presented better results for sugarcane technological characteristics at 30 days after application in the studied crop years. The application of 0.35 L ha-1 glyphosate favored an increase in the concentrations of shikimic and salicylic acids in the crop years of 2008 and 2009.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 64-71 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.2.9


Histological Effects of Different Doses of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (Sustanon®250) on Testis of Male albino Rats

Maha Haijan Ahmed, Najla Saud Al-Saud, Abdulkader Mohammed Shaikh Omar, Heba Fikry and Sabah Mahmoud Hassan

Abstract Context: The phenomenon of abusing Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) by many youth and athletes is a serious health phenomenon which increase rapidly in recent years.Sustanon is one of AAS typically containing four different testosterone esters which provides persistent release of testosterone into the blood and produces a stable level for a longtime. Aims:This study was conducted to determine the effect of paternal Sustanon® 250administration on reproductive performance of male albino rats.Materials and methods: Twenty male albino rats were used in the current study; they were randomly divided into four groups. Each group contains twenty rats. Control group, which represents rats did not receive any treatment.Experimental groups II, III and IV is treated weekly with Sustanon ®250 in 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg intramuscularly weekly respectively for 16 weeks.Results: Sustanon ® 250 seems to significantly (P<0.05) increased serum level of testosterone in rats in experimental group as compared to control group. The histological results revealed severe degeneration of the seminiferous tubules with necrosis and apoptosis. Conclusion:The present work illustrated the extensive effects of toxic doses of Sustanon® 250 on testis of the rats. For this reason, drug-prevention counseling to athletes and teenagers is focused on the use of AAS. Also, physicians should be informed about the physiologic effects, and should be limited to those with a medical indication and under observation.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 72-86 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.2.10


Knowledge and practice regarding dengue fever among primary health care center patients at Makkah

Hossam Hussen Hijazy, Sadeq Anees Uddinserdar, Rami lbrahim Alamri, Rayan Abdurrahman Alharbi, Moataz Salahaldeen Aljawi, Hamad Nasser Alshareef, Motaz Hussain Alsamli, Hosam Wahid Wali, NahlahTulat Haddad

Abstract Background: Dengue fever is a rapidly emerging infection throughout the tropics and subtropics with extensive public health burden. The aim of this study was to assess primary health care setting patients' knowledge and practices regarding dengue fever. Methods: Cross sectional study was used. A 47-item questionnaire of dengue knowledge and practices were developed and administered to primary healthcare center patients, KSA. Results: The results showed that (43.5%) of patients aged from 45-59 years, (52.8%) were male, (53.5%) married, (51%) take their knowledge from the health care professionals. The data indicated that (58.5%) of patients have a high level of knowledge and (68%) have average level of practices regarding prevention of dengue fever. Conclusion: Patients demonstrated a high level of knowledge of dengue, but additional training regarding prevention practices is needed. Interventions should not only focus on increasing knowledge, but also encourage review of the WHO Dengue Guidelines, avoidance of presumptive self-medication, and recognition of dengue as a major health problem.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 87-94 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.2.11


Sukuk: Measuring the Role of Sukuk As an Economic Growth Enhancer in Turkey

Mohammed M. I. Alkhawaja

Abstract As a result of continuous development of Islamic finance, we find Sukuk (which is also referred to as Islamic Bonds) as the most developed profit-loss sharing-based investment tool which is characterized by its simplicity, flexibility, and diversity. The aim of this study is measuring the impact of both sovereign and private Sukuk on Turkish GDP during the period 2010-2017 through analyzing reports published by Turk Participation Banks Union (TPBU), In this study we briefly view Sukuk history, identify sukuk, differentiate between Sukuk and bonds, show the development of Turkish Sukuk market and finally measure the impact of Sukuk on Turkish GDP. The study concludes that, Sukuk issuance is not totally independent from country’s economic situation as it has been severely affected by country’s GDP drop in 2015, on the other hand government is the major player in Sukuk market in turkey, as the total sovereign Sukuk issuance in Turkey during the study period was about $12.1 B while private Sukuk issued during the same period totaled $8.5 B. The impact of Sukuk on GDP how was increasing gradually to reach 0.54% in 2017.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 95-99 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.2.12