Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences

February 2021


Enhancing Energy Accessibility And Climate Change Adaptation Via Community Solar Energy With Smart Energy Metering

Thomas Ojonugwa Daniel, Goodness Ore Edaogbogun, Ishaku Borok Maren Abdulmutolib Olajide Olaoye and Bitrus Pam

BSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Instability and unavailability of electricity supply in most developing countries of Africa has necessitate the use of fossil fuel power generators which is not only associated with environmental pollution and global warming but its reserve is also finite and non-renewable. Solar energy technology has been characterized as eco-friendly and abundantly available. However, many energy end users are not able to implement individual’s solar energy installations for financial or technical reasons. OBJECTIVE: The study present a model for climate change mitigation/Adaptation by enhancing energy accessibility via people group energy installation called solar garden where a group of persons come together according to their energy need to set up a solar energy grid or a an individual set up the solar energy grid with a system of load control for subscribers via smart metering and payment adherence control using Global System for mobile communication smart application control and is based on method of empirical research supplemented by theoretical analysis via the use of computational models and formulas. RESULTS: A choice of five residence with daily total energy consumption of 35kW was made for the model design which can be extended or reduced depending on energy need. The solar garden with smart meter control gives energy access at reduce cost of 0.0831USD/kWh, the total unit of consumption, unit balance and other power/energy status per time. CONCLUSION: The model empirical design of a community solar of five residence gave energy accessibility and availability to the households with real time energy services for the households thereby enhancing climate change adaption by reduction of greenhouse gas emission..

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-12 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2021.15.2.1


Quality of Barley Produced in a Low Altitude Location in Subtropical Climate Conditions

Cristian Mateus Freiberg, Diego Nicolau Follmann, Rovani Marcos Rossato, Liliani Elisa Lemainski, Bruna Regina Carvalho Pinto, Mayferson Valmir Rotta Schlickmann, Rogério Luiz Backes , Felipe Tascheto Bolzan

ABSTRACT: Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the main winter cereals, intended primarily for brewing. The physiological characteristics of barley seeds are fundamental for the production of quality malt. To meet the requirements of Brazilian legislation for malt manufacturing, the minimum germination power required of seeds is 95%, thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the seed quality of barley cultivars and whether they meet the minimum quality requirements for malt production when produced in a low altitude site in a subtropical environment. The experiment field was conducted in 2019 at the Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM), located in the municipality of Santa Maria-RS. Four barley cultivars (BRS Quaranta; BRS Korbel; BRS Cauê, and BRS Brau) were analyzed. After the harvest, the seeds were taken to the Seed Analysis Laboratory (LAS-UFSM), where the physiological quality tests of the seeds were performed. The design used was completely randomized, with four repetitions. The evaluations performed to analyze the physiological quality of the seeds were radicle length (RL), shoot length (SL), germination test (GT), first germination count (FGC), vigor from shoots (VFS), and weight of one thousand seeds (WTS). The data obtained in the experiment were submitted to variance analysis and the means were compared by the Scott-Knott test at 5% significance, with the aid of the SISVAR software. The cultivars BRS Cauê and BRS Korbel showed values of radicle length and shoot superior to the other. The cultivar BRS Korbel obtained a higher seed weight. Therefore, the cultivar BRS Brau showed higher germination and vigor, obtaining a value higher than the minimum germination power required for malt manufacturing, indicating that with the proper management and positioning of cultivars it is possible to produce barley grains that meet the requirements for malt production in a low-lying site in southern.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 13-18 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2021.15.2.2


Biomonitoring of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Using Lichens and Bromeliads

Priscila Natasha Kinas, Vander Kaufmann, Francisco Henrique de Oliveira, Josué Raizer

ABSTRACT: In this study biomonitoring was used as a tool for assessing air quality in an industrial area in Pomerode, Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil, through the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations. The industrial area in Pomerode is of great relevance in this context since it hosts various types of industry: slaughterhouse, ceramic plant, cement plant, foundry, textile plant, mining activities and asphalt plant, among others. Part of the SC 418 highway runs through the industrial district of Pomerode. This study showed that it is possible to monitor the levels of the compounds of interest in the atmosphere by means of biomonitoring using lichens and bromeliads. The most significant amounts of PAHs found in this study are derived essentially from combustion processes which may be stationary sources, such as smokestacks, or mobile sources, such as vehicles. The concentration of PAHs found in the lichens represents an accumulation over time. The overall sum of the PAH concentrations (ΣPAH) found in the lichens was 6,264.6 ng kg-1, and at each site the sums of the PAH concentrations were: site 01 – 2,000.86 ng kg-1, site 02 – 256.93 ng kg-1, site 03 – 375.15 ng kg-1, site 04 – 411.77 ng kg-1 , site 05 -1,632.30 ng kg-1, site 06 – 140.10 ng kg-1, site 07 – 1,064.,50 ng kg-1 e site 08 – 382.80 ng kg-1. The variation among the sites evaluated was 140.10 ng kg-1 to 2,000.86 ng kg-1.The overall PAH for the bromeliads was 707.73 ng kg-1 and the following values were obtained for the sites: site 01 - 55.39 ng kg-1, site 02 - 67.21 ng kg-1, site 03 – 301.59 ng kg-1, site 04 - 27.49 ng kg-1, site 05 - 62.57 ng kg-1, site 06 – 18.58 ng kg-1, site 07 - 134.00 ng kg-1 and site 08 – 36.09 ng kg-1. The PAH varied from 18.58 ng kg-1 to 301.59 ng kg-1. However, all of the study sites were probably contaminated with PAHs originating from the industrial areas of Pomerode. The PAH values obtained in this study can be considered similar to those of remote regions of the globe, which characterizes low PAH contamination in the industrial area of Pomerode, especially when compared with older industrial and urban areas in Brazil, such as Cubatão, São Paulo State, Brazil. Air monitoring with the use of these bioindicators is effective and inexpensive, and this can be an important tool for the control and verification of environmental toxicity

[ FULL TEXT PDF 19-32 ] 10.22587/ajbas.2021.15.2.3