Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences

June 2021


HEC-HMS model application in event-oriented hydrological modeling

Víctor Luís Padilha, Francisco Henrique de Oliveira, David Proverbs

ABSTRACT: Environmental disasters by flood have occurred frequently in different regions of the world. Based on that, the aim of this study is to provide technical support for knowledge of the application of HEC-HMS model in event-oriented hydrological modeling. The support with the hydrological models to the water resources management and planning tools have been chosen in order to demonstrate how components that influence in environmental disasters have been incorporated in modelling. Widely used by many hydrologists around the world, the HEC-HMS is an essential tool for understanding watershed hydrological behavior in event-oriented modelling. The applying methods were appropriate for event-oriented modelling since they cause huge impacts along the year in several cities and need focused studies on their behavior. In this context, the city of Lages, state of Santa Catarina, in Brazil, recorded extreme flood events in recent years. Therefore, this paper employed three different events (2005, 2008 and 2011) to calibrate and test the HEC-HMS 4.2 model to Caveiras Montante 1 watershed composed by 7 sub-catchments. The new findings were to be able to improve the assessment on the events severity for the urban sub-catchments Ponte Grande and Carahá, which do not have monitoring. In terms of contribution to applied hydrology, there is great emphasis in the model outputs, which provides an overview of HEC-HMS modelling approaches. Finally, all the events reached excellent NSE index and respective residual volumes in the optimization processes to calibrate the events. It means the hydrological behavior of the conceptual system of sub-catchments during the event-oriented modelling can confirm the use of the regionalized outputs for the urban ungauged sub-catchments of interest Ponte Grande and Carahá. The experimental use of the regionalized outputs may work, for example, in hydraulic modelling for the same flood events in future research.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-14 ] 10.22587/ajbas.2021.15.6.1


Immunomodulatory Potential of Alkaloid-Rich Fraction of Abrus precatorius seeds Methanol Extract

Ugochi Olivia Njoku, Okwesili Fred Chiletugo Nwodo and Martins Obinna Ogugofor

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Modulation of the immune system plays an essential role in managing health and disease conditions in humans. Immunomodulation has been reported to effectively treat some diseases, especially those involving immune responsiveness or adverse immune reaction. A critical current feature of medicinal plants is the modulation of immune functions by certain plants and plant-derived products. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this research was to ascertain the immunomodulatory properties of Abrus precatorius alkaloid-rich seed fraction. METHODS: This study employed the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction in rats, titer of haemagglutinating antibodies (HA), and in-vivo leukocyte mobilization models. The experimental animals were split into five groups of four. Group 1 received the vehicle, while Groups 2, 3, and 4 received doses of seed fraction of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg b.w., respectively, and Group 5 received 2.5 mg/kg b.w. of the reference drug levamisole. RESULTS: Alkaloid-rich seed fraction significantly (p<0.05) decreased rat paw volume (oedema) relative to the control in a graded manner. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of alkaloid-rich seed fraction at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. to experimental animals significantly (p<0.05) elevated both primary humoral antibody titer as well as the secondary in a dose-related manner. Also, the tested groups showed a substantial and dose-dependent rise in leukocyte mobility into the peritoneum, with the lowest tested dose being the most effective. CONCLUSION: The inhibition of DTH response (immunosuppression) and the stimulation of both the humoral immunity and in-vivo leukocyte mobilization (immunostimulation) establish the immunomodulatory properties of the alkaloid-rich seed fraction of Abrus precatorius.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 15-20 ] 10.22587/ajbas.2021.15.6.2


Cascabela thevetia seed meal as a dietary alternative protein for Clarias gariepinus fingerlings

Theophilus Olayiwola Babalola, Bisola Bridget Alabi, John Bunmi Olasunkanmi, Jeremiah Olanipekun Jimoh

ABSTRACT: The rising cost of conventional protein sources in aquafeed has necessitated the search for alternative that is cheap, readily available, and not in competitive use with human and other livestock. This study evaluates the efficacy of replacing soybean meal with detoxified Cascabela thevetia seed meal (CTSM) on growth performance, tissue composition and haematology of Clarias gariepinus. Clarias gariepinus fingerlings (N=150) were assigned to varying levels of Cascabela thevetia seed meal (CTSM) namely 0, 50, 100, 150, or 200 g/kg diet and designated as CTSM0, CTSM50, CTSM100, CTSM150 or CTSM200 respectively as diet treatments. Ten fish were batch weighed into each of the fifteen tanks used for the feeding trial and the tanks were randomly assigned to each dietary treatment in triplicates. Fish were fed 5% of their body weight two times daily for 56 days. Fish growth performance was not significantly different (P>0.05). However, the tissue composition and haematological parameters were significantly different (P<0.05). Fish fed diet CTSM200 had the highest growth performance values compared to the other treatments and control. PCV, Hb, WBC, MCV and MCH were found to be highest in fish fed diet CTSM200. Neutrophil, lymphocyte and MCHC were not influenced by the dietary treatments. The results indicate that CTSM can be successfully incorporated in the diet of fish without serious negative impacts on growth performance and health. 20% CTSM dietary inclusion level resulted in highest growth performance, it is therefore recommended in the diet of C. gariepinus.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 21-27 ] 10.22587/ajbas.2021.15.6.3


Body, Corpolatry and Performativity in Physical Education

Rafael Valladão

ABSTRACT: Cartesian dualism influenced all classical science, reducing the body view to the field of natural sciences. With the redemocratization of Brazil, there was a break with the “biologicist” conceptions of the body, from the period of the military dictatorship, which valued performance, despite the fact that, currently, its influences are still observed in the Brazilian Physical Education imagination. Generally, the motivations for obtaining a “perfect body” (most of the times unattainable) appeal to emotions, fears of third parties 'judgments and insecurities hidden in the subjects' unconscious, appropriating the common element and creating the promise capable of healing that pain: the consumption. This research aimed to reflect on the concept of body and performativity in Physical Education and its paradigm changes, in addition to dialoguing with other research that dealt with the perceptions that undergraduates, Physical Education teachers and their students have about the body. The results of several studies have shown that students prefer to take classes with teachers that they consider “muscular” and that there is, in fact, a demand for this stereotype. It is possible to conclude, based on the observed literature, that there is a close relationship between the judgment that is made of the knowledge of the Physical Education teacher with stereotypes of "ideal body", "trained", "athletic", "thin", "musculous" that the culture of performativity wants to impose. It is necessary to search for complexity in its incompleteness and uncertainty and to know the tensions that these subjects undertake to face the strategies of performativity.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 28-32 ] 10.22587/ajbas.2021.15.6.4