Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences

March 2018


Studies on Preparation, Characterization and Biodegradation Behavior of HDPE Natural Polymers Blends

Fawzi Habeeb Jabrail, Alarqam Ziyad Taraq, Kailash Chandra Gupta

Abstract:Polyethylene (HDPE) is widely used in various applications due to its chemical, physical. and biological inertness but its durability presents a great challenge when it is released in the environment. To reduce its adverse effect on environment, currently various efforts are being made to modify its properties using naturally occurring biodegradable polymers but still these modifications found to be costly and required biodegradability in polyethylene is not yet achieved. Therefore, an attempt has been made to deveop biodegradable polyethylene blends using naturally occurring polymers. In this connection biodegradable high density polyethylene (HDPE) blends were prepared by thermally blending 2.0, 5.0 and 10.0 wt % amount of naturally occurring polymers such as; chitosan (CH), cellulose(CE), starch (ST), alginate (AL), pectin (PE), shellac (SH) and xanthan (XA). The observed biodegradabilility in HDPE blends might be due to the presence of hydrolysable linkages and stereo-favourable orientations of blended natural polymers. The added polymers have played a significant role in increasing the hydrophilicity in blended HDPE and acted as a bioassimilative nutrients for seeded microorganisms. The biodegradability of HDPE-polymer blends was evaluated in presence of various fungi such as; aspergillus niger, aspergillus terreus, fusarium solani, tricoderma hariziauum and tricoderrma viride. The disinfected films of pristine HDPE and polymer blened HDPE were inoculated with these fungi and the extend of biodegrdation was evaluated after a incubation period of three months at 28 ± 1˚C. The biodegradability of HDPE-polymer blends was compared with pristine HDPE by evaluating their molecular weights, and weight percent loss in samples incubated for three months along with selected fungus. The biodegrdation in pristine HDPE and its polymer blends was confirmed by comparing their FT-IR spectra and also by evaluating the variations in their mechanical and thermal properties. A significant variation in their morphologies in prsence of fungi has confirmed biodegradation in HDPE-polymer blends in comparison to pristine HDPE films. These studies have provided sufficient evidnces to confirm the role of added natural polymers in developing a biodegradable HDPE by blending various polymers such as chitosan (CH), cellulose(CE), starch (ST), alginate (AL), pectin (PE), shellac (SH) and xanthan (XA). Out of these polymers, the chitosan is found to be quite effective as it is acted better bioassimilative nutrient for microorganisms to cause biodegrdation of HPEF in comparison to other polymers.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-12 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.3.1


Optimization of Protein Production By Candida Utilis In Industrial Vinasse With Applicability In Food

Juliana Rocha de Meira Pires, Paulo Henrique Grazziotti, Nísia Andrade Villela Dessimoni Pinto, Arlete Barbosa dos Reis, Maria Lúcia Fernandes Reis, Carla Luiza BarbosaBorges, David Lee Nelson

Abstract: Aims: The objective of this study was to optimize the production of cellular proteins by yeast Candida utilis (torula) using vinasse as substrate and to determine the pollutant power of the untreated vinasse and the product obtained by the culture of torula through chemical oxygen demand analysis (COD). Methods: Vinasse characterization was based on the following methods: Lowry (1951); Von De Kamer and Van Ginkel (1952); Miller (1959); Silva (1981); AOAC (1990) and IAL (2008). The COD analysis was performed according to the APHA methodology (1998). Yeast extract-malt agar maintenance and uptake were carried out. Construction of the calibration curve of yeast growth was performed by counting cells in the Neubauer chamber and the absorbance at 550 nm in a spectrophotometer. The linear relationship between absorbance and cell concentration was obtained by constructing the calibration curve of cell growth. The analysis was terminated when the yeast presented in the steady state growth phase. Results: Cultivation of torula yeast in vinasse resulted in a 70% reduction in COD and an increase in pH from 4.2 to 5.9. The exponential growth of the torula began at zero time. The highest contents of malt extract, ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate were related to a higher production of yeast protein biomass. The highest yield was obtained during the growing period of 32 hours. Conclusions: The treatment of vinasse with torula reduced the acidity and the polluting power of vinasse. Adequate amounts of yeast inoculant adapted to vinasse conditions lead to a shorter delay phase and an early start of the exponential growth phase. For most treatments, the log phase was more extensive, which increased the yield of the cells. The ideal medium to increase the number of yeast cells contained 100 μL of inoculum, 6 gL-1 peptone, 6 gL-1 yeast extract, 0.7 gL-1, 1.3 gL-1 malt extract, 0.7 g L-1 NH 4 SO 4, 6 g L-1 NH4 NO3 and 6 g L-1 potassium phosphate. The treatment of vinasse with torula offers three benefits. It generates a neutralized residue that can be discarded or used as fertilizer without pollution of the environment. The product obtained is rich in proteins and can be used for animal and human nutrition. The production of torula with the residual vinasse of the bioethanol industry as substrate represents an additional source of income for the producers, besides being a sustainable process.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 13-26 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.3.2


Analysis Of Specific Cutting Energy In Planing Of Native Species Of Brazil For Solid Product Purpose

Anna Carolina de Almeida Andrade, Taiane Oliveira Guedes, Mônica Bezerra de Oliveira, José Reinaldo Moreira da Silva

Abstract Wood industries tend to automate their processes, aiming to increase yield and quality, to add value to their products. Therefore, the frequency inverter is an indispensable accessory for this purpose, once it allows the monitoring and registration of the pre-set parameters during processing. The aim of this study was to understand the behavior of native wood species from Amazon region of Brazil,Cedrelafissilis, Endopleura uchi, Erismauncinatum, Myroxylonbalsamum and Parapiptadeniarigida, regarding the specific energy required to perform their planing. The results showed that P. rigida, E. uncinatum and E. uchi woods required higher specific cutting energy and were statistically the same. C. fissilis and E. uchi
woods presented intermediate specific cutting energy consumption,C. fissilis and M. balsamum woods were the ones that required less specific cutting energy to be planed. The data found corroborate with those found in the literature. It was concluded that the specific cutting energy represents a good parameter to understand the behavior of wood during its mechanical processing.With the knowledge of the specific cutting energy values spent for the planing of the analyzed species, it is possible to indicate their use, since these species spent low cutting energy during processing and this is a factor of interest for the industries of the furniture sector. This study allowed to subsidize the decision making regarding the use of these species generating less waste, thus allowing the production of goods with greater added value, in agreement with the
sustainable management of the Brazilian native forests.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 27-30 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.3.3


Identification of Organophosphate Pesticides Reside on Tomatos, Potatoes, Chilis, Cubes, Carrots, Soil and Water In Garut, Indonesia In 2017

Suyud Warno Utomo, Martanto, Haryoto Kusnoputranto

Abstract: Background: Food requirements including vegetables every year always increases along with the growth of the population. To meet these requirements there is no other way instead of it must be done intensively. Intensification of agriculture will not be separated with the use of pesticides. Objective: Organophosphate pesticides are widely used by vegetable farmers in Garut region of West Java. Meanwhile, the quality and safety of vegetables produced must be healthy and safe. This study aims to identify residual content of organophosphate in Potato, Cabbage, Chili, Tomato and Carrot and residue test of Organophosphate group on water and soil in the District of Cikajang District, Regency of Garut in 2017. Samples come from agricultural land in District of Cikajang. The research was conducted by sampling vegetables, soil, water composites in farmers’ land as much as 3 samples each. Samples were examined by gas chromatography method with ECD detector according to standard method. Examination of organophosphate pesticide residual test shall include examination with Dichlorvos, Dimethoate, Diazinon, Fenittothion, Chlorpyrifos, Parathion, Methidathion and Profenofos active ingredients. In addition, field observations on farmer behavior in using pesticides were also conducted. Results: The results showed, based on these results, it is detected that profenofos concentration in chili vegetables is above the maximum limit of residuals established by the Indonesian National Standard 2015 that is 3.0 mg/kg. The concentration of profenofos in tomato
vegetables is still below the maximum limit of residuals as defined by the Indonesian National Standard that is 2.0 mg/kg however it has passed the RfD US-EPA standard in 2006 that is 0.00005 mg/kg/day. Pesticide residue of organophosphate group is not detected as exist in Soil and water samples. Observation of farmer behavior indicates that it has not been or is not environmentally friendly. They mix some types of pesticides without rules but by felling. They do not wear any PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENTS, sometimes even while smoking, they throw away pesticide packaging carelessly. With no detection of profenofos in some vegetables there are several possibilities. Conclussion: It is necessary to examine the content of active ingredients of pesticides at the merchant level and consumer level in order to compare the content of the authenticity of active ingredients of the remaining pesticides. It is necessary as well to conduct supervision and development by the government on the use of pesticides so that the health impacts and the environmental impacts can be minimized.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 31-34 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.3.4


Application of A New Technology For Dairy Processing Wastewater Treatment Using Activated Sludge

Rehab M. El-Hefny, Mohamed N. Ali, Ahmed M. Fouad

Abstract: Background:Dairy wastewater contains high levels of organics and other pollutants. Objective:The present study was carried out to study the treatment process of dairy effluents using activated sludge process (APS) without and with Nanoparticles using a bench scale model. The model consisted of aeration and sedimentation tanks. Samples were collected from El-Masreyeen factory in 6th October City from the ground tank of compact unit, Egypt. Results:The results proved the ability of the APS system without nanoparticles for the treatment of dairy wastewater. After the addition of nanoparticles, the treatment efficiency of dairy wastewater increased significantly.Conclusion:Addition of Nanoparticles to activated sludge improved the overall removal percent for all measured parameters to more than 90%. The application of nanoparticles proved as a clean, environment friendly and cheap technology to improve the treatment of dairy wastewater using ASP system.

35-42 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.3.5


Evaluation of Land Use Maps Using Remote Sensing and GIS

Maher M. Amin, A. Elshehaby, Mervat M. Refaat, Gehad Y. Elsayad

Abstract: Land use map considered as one of the most essential problems for planning and managing schemes to come across the increase in demands for basic human requirements and prosperity of the ever increasing population. Remote sensing is an important tool for the creation of land use maps by the use of image classification techniques. GIS is a tool that is helpful for conducting image classification through modeling. The aim of this study was to evaluate the land use map produced from classification of available Landsat images using modern techniques. The present study was accompanied in the Gold Triangle region, Egypt. The Landsat 8 images used in the classification process were taken in 2015 for land use mapping. Firstly, supervised classification was performed based on signature samples covered the area of interest. Then, accuracy assessment was done using ground truth of random points distributed all over the image produced from classification process. The total resultant accuracy of the image classification was 86 % and the Kappa coefficient was 0.82. This means there was 82 % agreement for the classified image by chance alone.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 43-48 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.3.6