Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences

May 2019


Effect of lipid source; Linseed or soybean in diets, on rumen and blood fatty acids profiles in Damascus goats

Abeer M. El-Essawy

Abstract This research aims to evaluate the effect of feeding different levels of whole linseed (L); as a lipid source rich in linolenic fatty acid, and full fat soybean (S); as a lipid source rich in linoleic fatty acid; on ruminal and plasma fatty acids profiles, rumen fermentation, and microorganism population. Twenty-four Damascus goats were assigned to 3 dietary treatments; S, S+L and L groups; contained 90% basal diet which consisted of 56.67% Concentrate feed mixture (CFM) and 33.33% Alfalfa hay with either 10% full fat soybean, 5% full fat soybean + 5% whole linseed or 10% whole linseed, respectively. Inclusion of linseed to diets increased (P<0.01) the total volatile fatty acids (TVFA’s) and ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N) (P<0.05) compared to animals fed on soybean diet whereas ruminal pH was not affected by dietary treatments. Significant increases (P<0.01) were detected in the populations of Cellulomonas cellulasea, Bacillus sp., Thermonospora fusca, Acetobacter xylinum, Ruminococcus albus and Clostridium cellulovorans in goats fed on linseed compared to those fed on soybean diets. The populations of R. albus and C. cellulovorans were only affected with the high inclusion of linseed. The number of ciliated sp. (Holotrichs) decreased (P< 0.01) while Entodinomorphs sp. increased (P<0.05) with linseed . There was a significant increase (P<0.05) in the total number of protozoa compared to that of goats which received soybean only. The ruminal and blood plasma fatty acids (FA) profiles of the experimental animals showed considerable modifications. Ruminal stearic acid showed the highest (P<0.01) percentage with linseed feeding while palmitic (P<0.01) and oleic acids (P<0.05) were predominant with soybean feeding. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) detected higher percentage than unsaturated ones on both levels of linseeds. Soybean inclusion increased (P<0.01) percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) compared to other two groups. In blood plasma; the predominant FA were palmitic, oleic then stearic acids with soybean, either supplied alone or with linseed (S and S+L groups), whereas oleic, palmitic then linoleic acids were predominant with linseed (P<0.01). The percentage of the absorbed UFA with linseed supply was more than SFA in the same group. Plasma total protein, albumin (P<0.01) and urea (P<0.05) were increased by linseed inclusion while createnine (P<0.05) increased with soybean. Linseed inclusion resulted in decreased blood cholesterol (P<0.01), triglycerides (P<0.05), low density lipoprotein (P<0.01) and increased high density lipoprotein (P<0.01) and total antioxidant capacity (P<0.01). Results indicated that linseed inclusion in diets resulted in considerable variations in rumen and plasma FA which indicates health promoting effects. Therefore, fatty acids composition of animal’s products resulted in more satisfying and healthful properties for consumer

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-10 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.5.1


Effect of selenium and vitamin E injection on nutritive value and performance of Baladi doe goats in Southern Sinai

Ahlam, R. Abdou

Abstract The present study aimed to investigate the effect of different injection levels of selenium plus vitamin E on goat performance, intake, digestibility, nutritive value and milk and blood metabolites. Forty Baladi doe goats 2-3 year old and (20.47±1.82 kg) average live body weight were randomly divided into four groups (10 does each). The first group was a control group, does of 2nd, 3rd and 4th groups received two injections of selenium and Vit. E; at early and late periods of gestation as follows, 0.125 mg Se+ 1.7 IU Vit. E/kg BW for 2nd group (T1), 0.250 mg Se + 3.4 IU Vit. E/kg BW for 3rd group (T2) and 0.310 mg Se + 4.2 IU Vit. E/kg BW for 4th group (T3). Digestibility trials were carried out after each injection. Does were fed a basal ration of concentrate feed mixture and the roughage portion of the diet was Berseem hay. Body weight of dams and kids were recorded. Mineral content (Se, Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu) of serum, blood and milk parameters were determined. Results revealed that, the injection of both Se and Vit. E did not show any significant effects on TDMI and CPI of treated groups at either period of pregnancy. Control group showed higher (P<0.05) CPD% than treatments. Whereas, EED% increased with Se supplementation. Supplementation of Se and Vit. E increased TDN% at late period and decreased NB at early and late pregnancy compared to control. Supplementation increased weight gain during pregnancy. Control and T2 recorded higher (P<0.05) average weaning weight, and daily gain than T3 and T1 groups. Goats received 0.125 mg Se plus1.7 IU Vit. E (T1) produced higher milk yield followed by control, T3 and then T2. Selenium concentration in milk increased with increasing injected selenium. Higher creatinine concentration at six hours’ post feeding was observed in treated groups compared with control. The highest AST was shown at zero time, while no significant effects on ALT were noticed. The highest AST value of P (5.33 mg/dl) was recorded of zero time for late pregnancy compared (3.28mg/dl) with early pregnancy periods at zero time. There were (P<0.01) differences of calcium (Ca) values among sampling time. The levels of zinc, iron did not differ significantly. Serum selenium concentration at zero time showed significant (P<0.05) differences. It could be concluded that lower level (0.125 mg Se plus 1.7 IU Vit. E/ kg /kg BW) injection of during early and late gestation improved nutrients digestibility, nutritive values, nitrogen utilization and increased milk yield of does. Moreover, injection with Selenium plus vitamin E resulted in normal renal functions (creatinine, urea), some minerals (phosphorus, calcium, iron , zinc and copper) and normal activities of both enzymes (alanine amino transferase (ALT) and aspartate amino transferase (AST) in pregnant does.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 11-25 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.5.2


Column adsorption of Violet Crystal and Methyl Red by deactivated lichen Parmotrema dilatatum

Kouassi Kouadio Dobi-Brice, Ekou Lynda, Yacouba Zoungranan, Koffi Kouame Sevariste, Ekou Tchirioua

Abstract In recent decades, there is an increase industrial sector in Ivory Coast, which results in the establishment of textile, agrochemical, pharmaceutical, etc. These industries release toxic chemicals such as dyes (Bhuiyan et al., 2017) into aquatic systems. Rejected dyes may cause gastrointestinal infections in humans with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea (Dulce et al., 2017; Jabs and Drutz, 2001). In plants, they affect negatively the process of photosynthesis (Tahir et al., 2016). Several effluent treatment methods (Lofrano et al., 2016) exist but remain expensive and inaccessible for developing countries such as Every coast. Adsorption is an alternative to these problems. The objective of these studies is to remove two dyes, Violet Crystal (VC) and Methyl Red (MR), on deactivated lichens using an adsorption column. The volume flow rate, lichen grain size, adsorption bed height and initial column entry concentration will be evaluated. Column adsorption tests have shown that feed rate, lichen grain diameter, adsorption bed height and dye concentration are parameters that influence the adsorption capacity and operating times of the column, such as residence and saturation times. The best residence and saturation times, and the best adsorption capacities were observed with a low flow rate D = 0.07 L/min, a high bed height h= 8 cm corresponding to a mass of 100 g, a small size of lichen grain [125-250 μm]. However, the increase in dye concentration has resulted in a decrease in residence and saturation times and an increase in the amount of adsorbed dye.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 26-34 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.5.3


Evaluation of the quality of filter washing water and decanter sludge after sequential treatment by drainage bed, dissolved air flotation, and filtration

Nilton Fernandes de Oliveira, Andre Luiz de Oliveira

Abstract In the present study, following the treatment in the sequential drainage bed (LD), dissolved air flotation (FAD), and filtration, all being on bench scale, the evaluation of the quality of the sludge decanter and filter washing water was carried out, at the Bom Jardim Water Treatment Station, located in the city of Uberlândia-MG. Subsequently, effluents from drainage beds, composed of three types of different geotextile blankets ( RT-21, RT-26, and RT-31) were evaluated, followed by the analysis of three types of sand grading used in the present work. Upon being passed through the drainage bed, the drained effluents were directed to pass through the flotation unit by dissolved air, and subsequently, through the filtration units. The analysis was carried in two stages: stage I, and stage II. In stage I, the experiment was carried out in the absence of the coagulating agent or auxiliaries in coagulation/flocculation of the flotation. The samples, after passing through the system, were evaluated for physical parameters such as (i) pH, (ii) turbidity, (iii) true color, and (iv) apparent color, in addition to, chemical parameters, thereby determining the remaining concentrations of aluminum and iron. On the other hand, stage II involves the tests similar to those carried out in stage I, but in the presence of three different concentration (5, 10, and 15 mg/L) of the coagulant (aluminum sulfate), mainly used in coagulation/flocculation. Upon analyzing the results obtained from both stage I and II, one can deduce that test performed with the RT-26 blanket at the exit of Filter 01, in stage I, showed better performance, with the reduction being 91.8%, 41.4%, and 97.6%, of the apparent color, true color, and turbidity, respectively. However, in stage II, the best performance was observed, with the drainage of the RT-26 blanket at the outlet of Filter 02, upon being subjected to a dose of 15 mg/L of aluminum sulfate. The experiment demonstrated a reduction of 96.4% of the apparent color, 86.2% of the true color, and 99.6% of the turbidity. Therefore, the results establish the efficiency of the system in the removal of solids present in the filter washing water and the sedimentation sludge from the ETA studied. Thus, the study affirms that this system can be a potential alternative of the sludge discharge as well as can become an option of a new treated water supply line.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 35-42 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.5.4


Investigating Instructors’ Attitude towards the Adoption of E-Learning Technology in Libyan Higher Education Institutes: Case Study; Misurata University

Khalid Ramadan, Jamal Elatresh, Alzain Alzain, Umit Tokeser

Abstract In recent years, Higher Education Institutes (HEIs) worldwide have invested heavily in the adoption of e-learning with a view to improving the quality of their education. However, the success of their development faced numerous challenges, particularly, the end user's acceptance, including the perceptions, and engagement. Therefore, surveying lecturers' attitudes toward e-learning in LHEIs is considered to be a meaningful stage before thoroughly embarking e-learning practices in educational activities. Instructors’ attitudes towards the use of e-learning have been extensively investigated in the educational system worldwide, however, in Libya, this research is ineffective and limited. In light of this, the present study aims to investigate the perception of instructors' in LHEIs and their attitudes towards implementing e-learning technology, where an online questionnaire has been utilized to collect data from 219 academic staff in various faculties at Misurata University (MU), in Libya. The collected data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social sciences (SPSS) to investigate the impact of demographic characteristics of participants on their attitude towards e-learning. The study concluded with a set of findings that revealed that the demographic characteristics of participants might have a significant impact on their attitude towards e-learning; which may directly impact the success of e-learning adoption in higher education. The results also show that the instructors in LHEIs have a positive attitude towards e-learning.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 43-54 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.5.5


On the effect of audit committee characteristics on corporate governance good practices index. Fresh evidence from Sudan listed firms

Hussein Mohamed Elnafabi

Abstract The paper aims to study the effect of audit committee characteristics on the effectiveness of corporate governance practices among Sudanese public firms. We use a survey to construct an index of corporate governance practices effectiveness and an OLS regression method was used in order to test the effect of the main audit committee characteristics namely, the committee size, the committee experience, the committee education and the committee professional certificates on corporate governance good practices. The effect of auditors’ age on corporate governance practices effectiveness was also discussed.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 55-59 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.5.6


Hormonal Strategy for Advance of Mating Season in Mares Scored on Follicular Diameter

Ana Carolina Fanhani de Arruda Botelho, Fabio Luiz Bim Cavalieri, Marcia Aparecida Andreazzi, Isabele Picada Emanuelli, Dyorgenes Mathaus Perosso Messias, Maria Fernanda Zamai

Abstract The equine productive in Brazil has been distinguished by the horses athletes. In this scenario, we highlight the use of reproduction biotecnology, which look to reproduce the best animals and increase the pregnancy rate through the induction of the first ovulation of the year. The objective of this study was to use intravaginal progesterone devices in mares with follicular diameters greater and smaller than 20 mm, aiming to advance the first ovulation of the mating season. Twenty-two crossbred mares, classified as: G1 - animals with a follicle ≤ 20 mm, and G2 - animals with follicles ≥ 20 mm, were given intravaginal progesterone device. After seven days, the follicular growth in the two groups was checked by daily ultrasonography. Device were removed when the animals got a follicle ≥ 35 mm and, one day after implant withdrawal, animals have reached 35 mm in both groups have had their ovulation induced. The data were tabulated and the statistical analyses of the variables were done using the procedure PROC GENMOD of the statistical program SAS, version 8.01. The percentage of animals that responded to the treatment, that is, had a dominant follicle greater than 35 mm, was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the animals of the G2 group (62.5%), compared to G1, which presented 28,5mm. The average time, in days, for the appearance of the dominant follicle was also higher (P<0.05) for the G2 group. The use of progesterone devices anticipated the first ovulation of the mating season, showing the efficiency and viability of technique.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 60-63 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.5.7


Analysis of the agro-industrial system in the region of Balsas - MA between the years from 2005 to 2017

Gustavo de Oliveira Barbosa; Nilton Marques de Oliveira; Fernando Silva Lima

Abstract This study looking for to analyzes in general form the agroindustrial system in the city of Balsas – MA relating and evidencing the study with the data collected in secondary bases. The migration of soy to microregion in mid 80’s, starting of genectcs alterations and adaptations in soil made with the region attracted a lot of large landowners making the region appropriate to culture cultivation, showing up since the beginning the emergence of agroindustrial complex in the city. We are interested to analyze and to understand the economic dynamic in the city as well as for the microregion. The methodology adopted was based on a bibliographical review, a priori, after the theoretical construction, secondary data analysis gived for IBGE and RAIS. The results showed the concentration and attraction that city of Balsas over other micro region's cities, evidencing, therefore, the existence of a relative agroindustrial complex in the county.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 64-84 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.5.8


Multi Criterion Decision Making Techniques for Ranking Regional climate models Over Wadi El-Natrun Catchment

Mahmoud A. Refaey and MHassan, Hany Mostafa, Mostafa Aboelkhear

Abstract A regional climate model (RCM) is a numerical climate prediction model forced by specified lateral and ocean conditions from a general circulation model (GCM). Multicriterion analysis were used to rank and choose the best regional model for the wadi el-natrun Catchment. Sixteen RCMs were assessed for Wadi El-Natrun Catchment with a gridded resolution of 0.5° × 0.5° for the mean monthly rainfall and mean monthly temperature using five performance indicators. The performance indicators used were the correlation coefficient, normalized root mean square deviation, absolute normalized root mean square deviation, average absolute relative deviation and skill score. The Entropy method was endorsed to acquire weights of these 5 indicators and PROMETHEE-2 (Preference Ranking Organization Method of Enrichment Evaluation). Multi-criterion decision-making techniques were applied as a new approach in Egypt for ranking sixteen Regional climate models over Wadi El-Natrun Catchment. The outranking relation is calculated and the solutions from best to worst are orderly positioned. Results direct that all entire applied methods give the same regional model for the first rank according to rainfall, for temperature, the first three applied methods (Compromise Programming, Cooperative Game Theory, Weighted average technique) give the same first rank model which have the second rank for PROMETHEE-2 method. The research concluded that the best model for the rainfall is not the same best model for temperature. The results indicated that model ICHEC-EC-EARTH _SMHI-RCA4 (Middle East and North Africa domain) and MPI-M-MPI-ESM-LR_MPI-CSC-REMO2009 (Africa domain) are the best regional climate model for simulating mean monthly rainfall and mean monthly temperature, respectively over Wadi El-Natrun Catchment. Therefore, they are recommended for the further investigation.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 85-96 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.5.9


Solanum tuberosum peel waste: an attractive substrate for Aspergillus sp. CP to produce glucohydrolase under solid state fermentation

Erum Hanif , Rattab Abbas, Shafaq Aiyaz Hassan, Raheela Rahmat Zohra

Abstract Filamentous fungi are being selected for the production of industrial enzymes as they have enormous capacity of production, on low cost solid substrates. Glucohdrolase is one of the industrial enzymes produced by Aspergillus niger. It hydrolyzed alpha 1, 4 and beta 1,6 glycosidic linkage, yield glucose by hydrolyzing polysaccharides from non-reducing end. Major utilization of glucohydrolase is in starch and beverage industry for the preparation of high fructose corn syrup. The present study is focused to utilize low cost, easily available potato peel waste as substrate for the production of glucohydrolase. Solid state fermentation optimization was carried out by providing suitable physiochemical parameters results in highest enzyme production i.e. 12333 units/ml/min. Dry potato peels 20 grams per fermentation flask, particle size 2mm, was moisten with a fermentation medium containing soluble potato starch 10g/L, peptone1g/L, yeast extracts 2g/L and MgSO4.7H2O 0.5g/L, (pH 5) with 50% of final moisture content. Fermentation was started with the inoculum of 7.5x104 spores per flask and fermentation was carried out at 20oC for 5 days.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 97-105 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2019.13.5.10