Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
         [ Home ] [ Instructions ] [ Contact us ]

November 2018


Effect of the campaign against food waste in a food and nutrition unit in Juína-MT

Mendalli Froelich, Erenice da Costa Ventura

Abstract: Background: According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1.3 billion tons of food are wasted annually, this volume represents 30% of all food produced annually in the whole world. Food and nutrition units are spaces dedicated to the elaboration and distribution of healthy meals. Inappropriate food service, food rejection or other factors can lead to waste. In order to evaluate the waste and quality of service of the food and nutrition units, it is possible to use numerous tools, one of them is the rest-ingestion index, which is the ratio between the rest returned in the trays by the costumer and the quantity of food and food preparations offered, expressed as a percentage. Objective: The present work intends to verify the occurrence of wastage in the form of rest-ingestion index, in the food and nutrition unit of the Federal Institute of Mato Grosso, and to evaluate the influence of an awareness campaign against food waste. Results: There was no statistical difference in per capita consumption, per capita rest ingestion and percentage of rest ingestion before and after the campaign against food waste. However, a reduction in per capita rest ingestion (12.1%) and percentage of rest ingestion (15.6%) after the campaign can be observed. Conclusion: It is concluded that the campaign to raise awareness of food waste has produced positive results for Federal Institute of Mato Grosso, Campus Juína, as there was a reduction in the amount of food wasted in the cafeteria, although it was not a statistically significant reduction. In this way, the need to carry out campaigns with a greater frequency is verified, as well as to implement other ways of working on the subject of food waste with the students, in order to obtain more satisfactory results. For this, it is also necessary that every school community is involved in making students aware of all the losses that food waste brings.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-4 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.11.1


Bonding strength of ceramic laminates to dental enamel after bleaching treatment

Zanon, Juliana, Boff, Luís Leonildo, Franco, Aline Batista Gonçalves, Kreve, Simone, de Carvalho, Geraldo Alberto Pinheiro and Dias, Sergio Cândido6

Abstract: Aim - This study evaluated the influence of bleaching agents on bond strength of ceramic laminates bonded to dental enamel, at different time periods. Material and methods - Eighty fragments of bovine incisors were divided into three groups: Group I – (control) without bleaching; Group II – At-home bleaching with 7.5% hydrogen peroxide (White Class, FGM) 1 hour-daily applications for 14 consecutive days; Group III – in-office bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide (Whiteness HP, FGM) (single session, 3 applications, 15 minutes). After bleaching, groups II and III were divided into 4 subgroups (n = 8), according to the cementation of the veneers. Specimens were subjected to shear bond strength testing after 24 hours, 7 days, 14 days and 28 days (EMIC, 20N load, 0.75mm/min cross-head speed). The specimens were analyzed in a magnifying glass (X20) for failure mode. The topography of the enamel surface of representative specimens was analyzed under SEM before and after bleaching.
Results - The results were evaluated by ANOVA and Tukey's test (⍺ = .05). There was no statistically significant difference for the mean bond strengths of the tested groups. The results were similar to each other, except between the mean bond strengths of GII-24h and GII-28 days which presented a statistically significant difference. Conclusion - The bond strength values for home bleaching had a more efficient recovery when compared to in-office bleaching after a 28-day period. Most of the failures were of the adhesive type. Both types of bleaching caused changes in the enamel surface.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 5-9 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.11.2


Potential of phosphite-based products in the control of Rhizoctonia solani in vitro

Stheffani Lucca dos Santos, Joanilson Vieira Prestes Junior, Thayllane de Campos Siega, Mychelli Press da Cruz, Caliandra Bernardi, Maristela dos Santos Rey, Sérgio Miguel Mazaro

Abstract: Background: Several plant diseases are caused by soil fungi, among them is Rhizoctonia solani, which is a necrotrophic fungus that can cause seedling tipping. Objective: The goal of this work was to verify the potential of copper, potassium and manganese phosphite products in the control of R. solani under in vitro conditions. The experiment was carried out in the Phytosanitary laboratory of the Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná (UTFPR), Dois Vizinhos campus. The products were added to the PDA culture medium, and later arranged in Petri® plates, where the pathogen was inoculated. The mycelial growth was measured daily until the control plate reached full growth. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four replicates, and the data were evaluated for normality and submitted to analysis of variance, then evaluated by regression. Results: The observed results showed that there was an inverse effect for dose factors and mycelial growth. With the increase of the doses there was the reduction of the mycelial growth, until the dose of 60 where the pathogen had low development. Conclusion: In view of this, it can be observed that the products based on phosphite were effective in controlling the pathogen Rhizoctonia solani, in both concentrations used, and with 60 μL the fungus showed low development. Demonstrating that in vitro the products can be used for inhibition of mycelial growth, however future studies should be performed aiming at the performance of the products under the pathogen under in vivo conditions.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 10-12 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.11.3


Online activity with metacognitive tool for the study of Vertebrate Biology in higher education

Caroline Medeiros Martins de Almeida, Paulo Tadeu Campos Lopes and Maria João Santos

Abstract: The objective of this work was to construct, implement and analyze the effect of an online activity with a metacognitive tool, in the teaching and learning process in the integument content. The study material on tegument content was created on the Wiki (a website with an easy-to-edit code that allows text, links and images to be used without the need to learn programming codes, such as HTML), and allows the student access content from anywhere using the internet, through smartphone, tablet or notebook. The research involved 33 students of the Biology course of a Portuguese public university. The study material was elaborated in topics to facilitate the apprehension of the concepts. The activity was applied in two ways: at distance and face-to-face. To evaluate the acquisition of the content, we used the metacognitive tool conceptual maps, and the evaluation of the satisfaction of performing the activity was verified through the analysis of a questionnaire. The conceptual maps were analyzed through four categories: structure, hierarchy, links between propositions and concepts present on the map. The maps were classified in fully present dimension, dimension partially present and dimension absent. The questionnaire were analyzed through descriptive statistics. In the analysis of the results, we realized that online activity can be used to assist students in the teaching and learning process, since it can stimulate students and it can promote learning, and conceptual maps can support the construction of knowledge, producing many metacognitive gains, since students need to select relevant content information and organize information. In the evaluation of the activity, the great majority indicated that they feel comfortable with the use of the digital technologies in the classes. Understand the importance of exploring different ways of enhancing the teaching and learning process in higher education, in which the teacher can take advantage of the potential of digital media in his / her classes and mobilize diverse skills that are crucial for students' scientific education.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 13-18 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.11.4


Estimating the Survival Function of HIV/AIDS Patients Using Weibull Model

O.D. Ogunwale, T. O Ogunlade

Abstract: Many people are not aware of the dreadful nature of Human Immune-deficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune-Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and those who are aware do not know its dynamism and some other latent facts about the disease. In view of the foregoing there is need to really provide hidden facts about the dynamics and probabilities of spread of the disease to reduce its spread to the barest minimum. In this paper we shall obtain the survival function of the disease using Weibull model. This work provides information on the survival times of a cohort of infected individuals. The mean survival time was obtained as 22.579months from the resultant estimate of the shape parameter =1.156 and scale parameter =0.0256 from Weibull 7++ simulation of n = 500. Confidence intervals were also obtained for the two parameters at = 0.05 and it was found that the estimates are highly reliable.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 19-24 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.11.5


Distributed Denial of Service Attack Categories in Software-Defined Networks

Ahmed K. Al-Shammari, P Ehkan, Naimah Yaakob, Layth A. Al dulaimi

Abstract: The Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack is from Important and main threats to Internet based killer applications, such as E-commerce, online games and social networking sites. The detection of these smart attacks has become very necessary and prevented from attacks. Software-defined networks (SDNs), which are considered to be a network of future communications, have emerged that separate network monitoring and redirection. Have some Special features such as central control and programmability to combat DDOS attack. In this paper, we scan DDoS Attacks, classification and knowledge of their mechanisms, in order to succeed in the development of mechanisms to defend the features of the network environment for the future and we conclude that it leads to counter attack DDoS. According to the analysis, we pave the way to build a defensive mechanism for DDoS in SDN.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 25-28 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.11.6


Proposal of a Virtual Learning Environment About Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Care in Adults

Maicon de Araujo Nogueira*, Tássio Ricardo Martins da Costa, Sávio Felipe Dias Santos, Márcio Almeida Lins, Anne Caroline Gonçalves Lima, Anne Kerollen Pinheiro de Carvalho, Antonia Margareth Moita Sá, Antônio Carlos Nunes Miranda Junior, Brenda Gonçalves Fortes, Erlon Gabriel Rego de Andrade, Evelyn Tayana Maciel Mendonça, Henrique Calixto Santos da Silva, Manoel Victor Martins Marinho, Márcia Paula dos Santos Cordeiro, Andréia Rodrigues Pinto, Natália Fernandes Cunha, Paula Regina de Melo Rocha, Suanne Coelho Pinheiro Viana, Suelen Gaia Epifane, Aglaisa Cristina Nabiça Cruz

Abstract: There is still considerable variability in survival rates related to Cardiopulmonary Arrest (CA) that cannot be attributed exclusively to the patient characteristics. The lack of knowledge about the theme by professionals and students is a consequence of flaws on the basic education. This way, graduating professionals able to operate on CA situations is believed to be a primordial attitude to increase patients’ survival chances. To do so, digital strategies can be used, one of them is the Virtual Learning Environment. Thus, this paper’s objective is to develop a virtual interactive educational proposal about cardiopulmonary resuscitation care in adults. This is an applied research, which led to the development of a technological product – the elaboration of an educational proposal applied on Virtual Learning Environment. Then, it took place the cyclic phases of conception and planning, development and implementation, according to procedures and evidences reported on previous studies. The Virtual Learning Environment was called “Training in Basic Life Support (BLS)”, and has seven modules: “Historical Aspects”, “Basic Life Support”, “Epidemiology”, “Concepts”, “Anatomy and Physiology”, “Algorithms”, “Simulation and Questions”. The illustrations, formatting and layout were built by integrating two language programming technologies: Personal Home Page and JavaScript. The results of the evaluation made by the academics about the VLE usage pointed that opportunities to self-learning were created and the available resources in the environment were useful to support learning. It’s necessary to comprehend and incorporate the Virtual Learning Environment as an efficient educational tool and get aware of this knowledge as a strategy to add up new experiences and values to teachers’ practice.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 29-33 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.11.7


Development Strategy of Kutuh Village-Badung Coastal Area as a Tourist Object

I Ketut Sumantra, Anak Agung Putu Agung, A. A. Ketut. Sudiana, K. Dera Dwi Wilyantari

Abstract: Kutuh Village in Badung Regency has a very interesting tourist attraction named Pandawa Beach. Named Pandawa Beach because along the road to the beach there are statues of puppet figures of Panca Pandawa. This beach is visited by tourists both within and outside the country. The research objective is to identify the components of the planning of the beach tourism area and formulate a development strategy for the Pandawa Beach tourism area. The data were collected at Pandawa Beach, Kutuh Village, Badung Regency, with observation techniques, in-depth interviews, documentation, and literature studies. The obtained data were analyzed by using SWOT. The development strategy that needed to be done was improving facilities and infrastructure, increasing tourism promotion, enhancing the active role of the community both as an agent and participating in preserving nature and local culture, optimizing the utilization of natural resources and marine environment through the development of water activities such as snorkeling, seaweed utilization as a tourist attraction and culinary.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 34-37 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.11.8


Assessment of physiological, ultrastructural and biochemical alterations in naturally and artificially aged Handroanthus impetiginosus seeds

Luciana Magda de Oliveira, Maria Laene Moreira de Carvalho, José Márcio Rocha Faria, Henk W.M. Hilhorst, Anieli Cioato de Souza

Abstract: Handroanthus, whose species are useful in reclamation of disturbed lands and important for their increasing use for medicinal, is mainly propagated by seeds, which shown alterations in the germination during aged. The objective of the present study was to assess treatments pre-germination and disinfestation in addition to the physiological, ultrastructural and biochemical aspects in naturally and artificially aged Handroanthus impetiginosus (Mart. ex DC.) Mattos seeds. The seeds were or not submitted to artificial aging at 42 °C, 100% RH for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, and assessed for germination, electric conductivity, presence of polyphenol compounds, water potential and cell cycle activity. Were also tested pre-germination treatments (high temperatures (45oC/seven days) and low (10 °C/15 days), gibberellic acid, potassium nitrate, water imbibitions and seed coat removal) and disinfection of the seeds (sodium hypochlorite and benomyl). Seed germination, depending on the initial quality, present fluctuations during artificial aging and there is not differential response in the disinfestation treatments. Lower germination rates were observed in freshly collected H. impetiginosus seeds than in those submitted to all the aging times and treatments pre-germination, except for 48 hours aging with imbibitions treatment followed by coat removal, that stood out from the others, attaining germination of around 80% whereas stored seeds aged for 24, 48 and 96 hours and submitted to imbibitions reached higher germination rates. Thus it can be suggested that H. impetiginosus seeds present secondary dormancy that can be broken by artificial aging followed by imbibitions and coat removal. The period of seed exposure to artificial aging that leads to higher germination rates depends on whether the seeds were stored or not. Microtubules were not detected in the H. impetiginosus seeds at different times of artificial aging. Regarding DNA content, there were not changes in the 4C value during the artificial aging, indicating the absence of DNA duplication.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 38-43 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.11.9


Strategies for Developing the Creative Economy in Great Malang as an Effort to Improve Competitive Advantage of Local Economic Enterprises

Tuti Hastuti, Marjani AT, Endah PS

Abstract: This research is aimed (1) to understand the creative economy potentials in Great Malang; (2) to analyze the development of creative economy in Great Malang; (3) to construct the creative economy concept for Great Malang in comprehensive manner, starting from the determination of creative economy in each locality to the strategic plan for implementing development action; (4) to identify factors constraining and supporting the success of local creative economy; and (5) to formulate the effective monitoring and evaluation for the increase of competitive advantage through designing local creative economy model in Great Malang. Research uses three analysis methods, respectively: (1) Location Quotient (LQ) Analysis which uses basis economic model to identify the distribution of leading commodity; (2) Shift Share (SS) Analysis which analyzes post-market and economic growth, proportional shift, industry-mix shift, and competitive advantage shift; and (3) Qualitative and quantitative analysis on SWOT matrix. Result of research indicates several findings. The leading sector in Malang City includes: (a) Sector of Water Supply, Trash & Waste Management, and Recycle; (b) Sector of Construction; (c) Sector of Wholesale & Retail Trading of Car & Motorcycle and Reparation; (d) Sector of Education Service; and (e) Sector of Health and Social Activity Services. The leading sector in Batu City is consisting of: (a) Sector of Water Supply, Trash & Waste Management, and Recycle; (b) Sector of Construction; (c) Sector of Wholesale & Retail Trading of Car & Motorcycle and Reparation; (d) Sector of Accommodation and Food & Beverage Provisioning; and (e) Sector of Other Services. The leading sector in Malang Regency is comprised of: (a) Sector of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery; (b) Sector of Processing Industry; (c) Sector of Water Supply, Trash & Waste Management, and Recycle; and (d) Sector of Construction. Based on the result of SWOT analysis, it can be said that the strategic position of the creative industry in Great Malang can be described as growing and developing. The alternative of strategy that can be used in the future is market development strategy

[ FULL TEXT PDF 44-53 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.11.10


Assessment of Visitor Management Methods at the Caparaó National Park

Marcello Pinto de Almeida, Gumercindo Souza Lima, Sebastião Venâncio Martins and Gínia Cézar Bontempo

Abstract: In Brazil, the planning and development of visitor impact management actions still occur incipiently, in contrast to a significant greater number of visitors observed in Brazilian protected areas. The aim of the present study is to determine the Tourism Carrying Capacity (TCC) and the Benchmark Number of Visitors (BNV) for the trail to Pico da Bandeira, at the Caparaó National Park, in order to carry out a comparative analysis between these two visitor impact control management tools. The park’s current visitation intensity does not surpass the estimated TCC for this study (1,695 visitors per day), albeit exceeds the BNV (250 visitors per day). Even though the BNV methodology conceptually originates from the TCC, expressive improvements have not been observed, just a timid change in approach. In both cases, estimating the maximum number of visitors is a dynamic process that requires periodic review in order to adjust visitor impact management decisions.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 54-60 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.11.11


Allelopathy of Pinus taeda needles on the Germination and Initial Growth of Brachiaria riziziensis

David Marlon Dalposso, Edson Bertoldo, Thayllane de Campos Siega, Pedro Valério Dutra Moraes, Maira Cristina Schuster, Lucas Link, Alexandre Defaveri

Abstract: The demand for food on a worldwide scale means that new studies aimed at maximizing production and at integrated systems are being carried out, such that in the same area distinct products can be obtained, whether of forest, agricultural or livestock origin. The present study has the objective of evaluating the allelopathic potential of extracts from dry and green Pinus taeda needles on the germination and initial growth of Brachiaria riziziensis seeds. The experiment was conducted at the Laboratório de Sementes da Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná (Seed Laboratory of the Federal Technological University of Paraná), Dois Vizinhos Campus, Brazil. Allelopathic effects of green P. taeda needles on the germination and initial growth of B. riziziensis were found, that is, on all the analyzed variables a greater effect was shown in accordance with increased concentration of the extract.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 61-63 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.11.12


Thermal Time as a Bioclimatic Index for Development Characterization of Sunflower Cultivars in Southern Brazil

Maurício Siqueira dos Santos, Diego Nicolau Follmann, Astor Henrique Nied, Cleiton Antônio Wartha, Vívian Oliveira Costa, Éder Neimar Plautz, Darlei München Bamberg, João Vitor Ferreira Scopel, Gustavo Henrique Engel

Abstract: Sunflower is widespread in several regions of the world, being an important source of vegetable oil and protein feed for livestock. The modern sunflower cultivars are insensitive to photoperiod responses, with growth and development being influenced by the air temperature and accumulated degree days (thermal time). The aim of this study was to evaluate thermal time in comparison to calendar days for the change of phenological stages of sunflower cultivars in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The evaluated cultivars were Syn 045, BRS 323, BRS G58, BRS G59, BRS G60, BRS G61, MULTISSOL 02 and CATISSOL 03. The experiment was performed in a randomized block design and subperiods were defined from the emergence the crop reproductive stages, corresponding to the stages R3, R4, R5.1, R5.10, R6, R7, R8 and R9. Thermal time was calculated by means of the residual method, a method widely used to determine the thermal time in annual crops. There were variations in the thermal time between cultivars with respect to development stages, depending on the subperiod and evaluated cultivars. There was a difference in cultivar group formation if the thermal time measurement was used as a substitute for calendar days. The cultivar Syn 045 presented the greatest thermal time in both stages, followed by cultivar BRS G61 that presented the second greater thermal time for stage transition, indicating a late cycle behavior in relation to the other cultivars. Studying the behavior of sunflower genotypes in face of the accumulation of degrees day and determining their thermal time enables better understanding of the crop as well as its development stages, allowing the best planning of the cultural practices and sunflower management in the reproductive stage.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 64-67 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.11.13


Different ecological indicators applied to the quality of forest restoration in the Atlantic Forest in Brazil

Wilbert Valkinir Cabreira, Raíssa Nascimento dos Santos

Abstract: Ecological indicators can help in identifying the way the targets set in a restoration project. Being quantitative or qualitative, they can be measured or evaluated subjectively. In this sense, the present study had the objective of comparing two different methodologies aiming to evaluate the quality of the reforestation through ecological indicators. The study was carried out along the Yellow Trail of the Guapiaçu Ecological Reserve, Cachoreiras de Macacu, RJ. Different methodologies were selected and a plot of 20 x 10 meters was demarcated to evaluate the quality of the reforestation. We also performed variance analysis and Tukey test to evaluate some ecological indicators. The closed area was the one that presented greater density of arboreal individuals as well as a greater coverage than canopy. In the INEA score, the closed area presented a final concept superior to the open area. However, in the second methodology, both areas presented the same final grade. In none of the areas were exotic or endangered species found. A Shannon index of 3.9 and 3.91 was recorded respectively for the closed and open area. Natural regeneration can be noted in both areas as well as planting ordinance. The low values of richness and zoocoric individuals in the areas can be justified by the method of implantation of the reforestation in which in areas of poor site quality, more robust and fast growing species such as legumes are commonly used. Although INEA's methodology used a smaller number of indicators to evaluate the quality of the reforestation, it was in it that a difference of the scores between the evaluated areas can be noticed. This implies that there is no need to use a high amount of indicators for evaluation, since it will only require time and cost for the developer. It was concluded that the methodologies are efficient to evaluate the quality of reforestation.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 68-72 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.11.14


Malaria in Modern Day: A review article

Areej O. Bakhraibah

Abstract: Five species of Plasmodium Parasite has emerged, one of which is known as Plasmodium Malaria. Malaria is widely spread and infects over two million people annually. The causes of Plasmodium Malaria growing widely can vary from a country to another. Educating people on the prevention techniques and curing methods and treatments is essential to overcome this parasite and the life threatening disease it causes.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 73-75 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.11.15


Phenol adsorption on Ca / activated carbon catalysts: effect of formic acid

Christian Appia, Tchirioua Ekou, Lynda Ekou, N’guessan N’goran Bernard

Abstract: The monometallic performances of catalysts containing calcium Ca (II) supported on the activated carbon (CA) prepared by the method of impregnation to eliminate involved phenol or not from formic acid starting from a phenol water charged were studied by the technique of adsorption. The support (CA) and the Ca/CA catalyst were characterized by BET, IRTF and AAS. The effects of the pH of catalysts and the content of metal calcium were studied. The experiments of adsorption made it possible to indicate the best catalysts 3%Ca/CA (99.41%) to pH = 1 in absence of formic acid and 3%Ca/CA (96.75%) pH=7 in the presence of formic acid. From where, the capacities of adsorption of phenol of catalysts showed that the formic acid significantly did not improve the properties of surface of the X%Ca/CA catalysts.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 76-82 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.11.16


Which one is the Basic Source!
The Cyclop of Homer or the Cyclop of Dede Korkut (Tepegöz)?
The Second Part*

Hasan Gunes

Abstract: Background: The Book of Dede Korkut is one of the most important sources reflecting our own culture to the present day. For now, there are two samples of these due epics conveyed to our present day. One of them is Ettore Rossi’s Vatikan Sample and the other Heinrich Friedrich von Diez’s Dresden Sample. Diez was the first person realizing the first detailed study, putting the copy of this study in the Library of Berlin and translating Tepegöz into German after having identified the due sample in the Royal Library of Dresden. Diez had translated Tepegöz from the language of the Ottoman’s into German and compared Tepegöz and Homer’s Epic of Polyphem in utmost detail in his work called Denkwürdigkeiten von Asien. As a matter of fact, this present text is the translation of Heinrich von Diez’s work named Denkwürdigkeiten von Asien. Objective: The handwritten work known as the Dresden Sample was named such because of being found in the Royal Library of Prussia being the old name, The Public Library of Dresden being the new name of the library today. At the beginning Diez had introduced the due sample with a manuscript and published the first part of his work called Denkwürdigkeiten von Asien in 1811 and later in 1815 he published the second part of it in “Kitab-ı Dede Korkut Âla Lisân-ı Tâife-i Oğuzan” in other words, in the 8 th chapter of the Dresden Sample “The Epic where Basat killed Tepegöz” takes place. Here Tepegöz was narrated from his birth to death. Alike this due epic there is also the Polyphem Epic belonging to Homer. This work of Homer is more superficial. In his argument Diez claimed that the Polyphem Epic was inspired by the Tepegöz of the Oghuz by putting forward the evidences. All the claims he had put forward had very serious and strong background. Results: In the Dresden Sample, in other words in “Kitab-ı Dede Korkut Âla Lisân-ı Tâife-i Oğuzan” there are twelve epics. And one of the twelve epics is the one ordered in the 8 th place called “The Epic Where Basat Killed Tepegöz”. The due epic had been the center of arguments. Because there was another epic alike this and this was the Polyphem Epic of Homer. Diez had compared both of the works, put forward all their details and at the end had come to the conclusion that the Tepegöz of the Oghuz was more original from his birth to death, that it had much stronger roots and eventually had proven that Homer claimed the work as his own by giving all the necessary evidences.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 83-86 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12. 11.17


Production of Antileukemic Enzyme L-asparaginase from Marine Bacteria Associated with Coral Siderastrea stellate (Verrill, 1868), Brazil

Bruno Oliveira de Veras, Yago Queiroz dos Santos, Alexandre Gomes da Silva, Fernanda Granja da Silva Oliveira, Krystyna Gorlach-Lira, Raphael de Oliveira Nascimento Lacerda, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva Almeida, Elizeu Antunes dos Santos and Márcia Vanusa da Silva.

Abstract: L-asparaginase, an antileukemic drughas been approved for clinical use for many years in the treatment of childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL), is obtained originally from bacteria Escherichia coli and Erwinia carotovora. The L-Asparaginase (LA) is an enzyme capable of selective hydrolysing of the amino acid L-asparagine (E.C., it presents several technological applications. L-asparaginase from bacteria can cause anaphylaxis and other abnormal sensitive reactions due to the low specificity of the enzyme. Toxicity and repression caused by bacterial L-asparaginase has intensified new research aimed to obtain bacterial strains producing this enzymatic type with a more effective enzyme without adverse reactions. In the present study, L-asparaginase producing bacteria were isolated from colonies of Siderastrea stellata (Verrill, 1868) Cnidaria, Scleractinia. Sixty-nine bacterial strains were tested for L-asparaginase production using a fast plaque technique, in which six were positive in screening for L-asparaginase. Positive isolates in qualitative screening demonstrated capacity to produce halotolerant and thermostable L-asparaginase, presenting growth and enzymatic production in medium containing 1.0 M NaCl. The isolates showed total enzymatic activity varying from 170.0 to 300.5 IU/mL. The producers were identified as Bacillus subtilis based on morphological and molecular characteristics of the 16S rRNA gene. It was found that they have the ability to secrete this enzyme in the extracellular environment. These isolates presents an enormous potential for application in several areas of biotechnology.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 87-91 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.11.18


Head Losses Ratio Prediction for Hydraulic Sludge Transport in horizontal pipes for Different Concentrations and pipeline sizes

Mahmoud A. Refaey Eltoukhy, Khalid A. Alkhuzai, A.T. Elkashef

Abstract: Sludge pumps in wastewater treatment plants are often oversized due to uncertainty in calculation of head losses. This issue increases costs for industry to purchase and operate the oversized pumps. Pumping sewage sludge of various types and concentrations through pipelines, both within treatment works and over longer distances between works and disposal areas, is a well-established practice. The design of these pipelines has been based mainly on the hydraulic laws of water but with the deduced coefficient of friction corresponding to the sludge concentration. This paper investigated the hydraulic transport characteristics of sludge-water mixtures in pipelines by changing the Reynolds number and volumetric delivered concentrations through analysis of results obtained from wastewater treatment plant. The analysis of these results was conducted in the light of pervious works. It was found that, the hydraulic head losses ratio increases with the Reynolds number and decreases with the pipe diameter. Equations were developed for prediction of head losses ratio for hydraulic sludge transport in horizontal pipes for different sludge concentrations and pipe sizes. Also, the results were represented in a form of curves used for the same purpose.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 92-101 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.11.19


Morphometric study of posterior interosseous nerve and its surgical importance in neurotization

Nehal Mohamed Nabil, Nancy Mohamed Aly El-Sekily, Mohammad Hasan Ahmad Hasan

Abstract: Background: Accurate localization of posterior interosseus nerve (PIN) and its motor branches in the forearm is a subject of major concern for orthopedic surgeons, neurosurgeons, and physiotherapist for the proper diagnosis and management of different neuropathies. The aim of this work was to study the morphometry of the posterior interosseous nerve and its motor branches to be correlated to its surgical significance.
Material & Method: Twenty forearms of formalin preserved specimens (12 right & 8 left) were dissected to study the different morphometric parameters of PIN and its motor branches using a vernier caliper. Results: The most proximal branch of PIN was supplying supinator in 20%, extensor carpi radialis longus in 20%, extensor digitorum in 30%, and extensor carpi radialis brevis in 30% of cases. In 12 out of 20 specimens (60 %), the last motor branch of PIN supplied the extensor indicis, and in 8 forearms (40%) this last motor branch was supplying extensor pollicis longus. The mean distance from the most proximal part of ulnar head to the origin of the last motor branch of PIN was 8.4±2.75 cm. In one left forearm, an extensor carpi radialis accessorius muscle was found. The clinical case in this study: was a patient presented 9 months after gunshot injury of the left arm with radial nerve palsy. PIN neurotization using branches of median nerve was performed to re-innervate muscles of wrist and finger extension. The branch of median nerve supplying flexor carpi radialis was transferred to PIN, and the branch of flexor digitorum superficialis was transferred to nerve to extensor carpi radialis brevis. Conclusion: The findings of the current study provide a topographic and morphometric mapping of PIN and its branches in the forearm in relation to a proximal and a distal bony landmark, which is valuable during surgical procedures such as neurotization and denervation.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 102-108 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2018.12.11.20