Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences

November 2020


A New Mobile Application for Educating Autistic Children: A Pilot Study

Hania El-Shoubashy, Prof. Saleh Mesbah, Prof. Hatem Abdel-Kader

Abstract: Introduction: Children suffering from Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), exhibit multiple neurological, communication, social and emotional regulation deficits. These impairments constitute serious challenging obstacles to parents and health care providers specially in the education and learning settings. The paraprofessional role has been indispensable for supporting and assisting those afflicted children, however, in controversy a number of disadvantages resulted from their adherence to the child, their financial burden and the skeptic vision towards their qualifications and training. Aim of the work: A new educational intervention has been introduced via a mobile app “The Shadow Teacher”, which has been developed aiming at replacing the paraprofessional and engaging the parents in assisting their afflicted children through properly designed tasks. Material and methods: This is a pilot study, based on three previously diagnosed autistic children, selected from their rehabilitation center. They were 2 males and one female, with ages 4, 7 and 10 years respectively, and diseases severity ranged from level 1 mild to 3 severe. The parents were interviewed to assess their feeling towards their child’s disease and their perception of the paraprofessional role. The app was designed based on their expectations towards their children’s need as well as consultation with a professional expert. After explaining the apps functionality, the parents were educated on how to use the app and assist their children in creating tasks coping with their children’s interaction. Children improvements and progress was evaluated through a comprehensive questionnaire distributed to the parents regarding their neurological, communication, social and emotional regulation. Results: Results were evaluated in relation to eight hypotheses, depicting that positive correlation occurred between the shadow teacher app and neurological deficit in relation with communication development and social interaction. Furthermore, difficulties using the app, was faced with the 4 y aged child. Conclusion: Shadow Teacher application proved to be a powerful promising tool that would improve the ASD children and their parents quality of life through improving their deficits.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-6 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2020.14.11.1


Impact of Foreign Direct Investment and International Financing recourses on economic growth case of Egypt from 1980 -2018: Review Article

Amina Yacoub, Prof. Dr. Taha Kassem, Prof. Dr. Ali Abd Elwahab

Abstract: Economic growth in Egypt was so spanking that observers alluded to the nation as ‘the Tiger on the Nile.’ However, political unrest—and the period during up to it— in 2010 slowed down development and sent the economy into a depression, from which Egypt is still rehabilitate. In 2016, Egypt marked on to a rebuilding on to a restructuring loan with the International Monetary Fund (IMF), which required the nation to float its currency, prioritize fiscal consolidation, increment charges (tariff), and execute deep structural reforms. Few macroeconomic indicators have trended positively since those austerity measures, counted nominal GDP growth, defecated reduction, and reduced inflation; yet Egypt’s unemployment rate has been slow to decline. This study aims to measures the impact of foreign direct investment and international financing resources on economic growth in Egypt and determines the relative importance of each component with economic growth during the study period from 1980 to 2018.trying to clarify the concept of economic growth, theories of economic growth, the major determinants of economic growth and how international financing and FDI affect the Economic growth in Egypt in the period 1980-2018. The objective of this research is trying to identify the significance of economic growth as means to increase the revenues and wealth of countries and how countries can overcome challenges of economic growth through attraction of FDI and seek the assistance of international economic institutions as well. Another objective is to clarify the role of international financing resources in the increase of economic growth in developing countries. This study also It also sheds light on the research method that will be applied to test the validity and reliability of correction of the hypothesis through the quantitative method depending on the ARDL (autoregressive distributed Lag) co-integration. It is a technique used in determining the long run relationship between series with different order of integration. The re-parameterized result gives the short-run dynamics and long run relationship of the considered variables.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 7-17 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2020.14.11.2


Evaluation Study of GNSS Technology and Traditional Surveying in DEM Generation and Volumes Estimation

Youssef Sh. Abd-elqader, Prof. DR. Essam M. Fawaz, and Dr. Ahmed M. Hamdy

Abstract: Using of digital surveying equipment, Including total station (TS) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), is an essential part of the development of the human environment for so many decades. When new technologies are increasingly used, the total station remains a critical instrument of observing. A total station (TS) or total station navigation theodolite (TST) is an electronic/optical system used for surveying and construction.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 18-25 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2020.14.11.3


Groundwater Potential of Olojuoro-Olode-Gbayo, Part of Southwestern Nigeria

Lukuman Abudulawal and Sikiru A. Amidu

Abstract This study aims at identification of aquiferous layers for high groundwater yield, which could serve the ever-increasing population because of the increasing mining activities at Olojuoro-Olode-Gbayo, Ibadan, south-western Nigeria. In this study, a simple relatively inexpensive and reliable electrical resistivity method was used. Twenty-four VES (vertical electrical sounding) using Schlumberger configuration with maximum current electrode separation (AB/2) of 100 m were carried out over the area in order to understand the subsurface geologic settings that could lead to successful exploration for groundwater. Interpretation of geo-electrical data involved use of curve-matching technique and computer-iterations. The interpreted geoelectric sections showed the lithology to consist of top soil, lateritic clay, weathered bedrock, fractured basement, and fresh basement. The geo-electric parameters (layer resistivities and thicknesses), which are known to be of hydro-geologic importance were inferred from the VES interpretation and were used to generate maps (basement resistivity, overburden thickness, and reflection coefficient maps). These maps were synthesized and integrated to delineate areas with possible good yield of groundwater. Analysis of interpreted results shows that majority of the curves are ‘H’ types. The overburden thickness ranges from 3.5 – 29.7 m, whereas basement resistivities and reflection coefficients are estimated to vary between 150 – 1678 Ωm, and 0.39 to 1.5, respectively. The interpreted maps identified geo-electric parameters favorable for groundwater occurrence. It could be inferred that central part of the study area has high potential for groundwater development, compared to northeastern part where conditions are less favorable. In conclusion, the study area has a very good potential for groundwater development which can serve the communities and increasing population of the miners.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 26-36 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2020.14.11.4


Gamification Effect on Brand Engagement: A Pilot Study

Hend El Shoubashy, Prof. Mohamed Abdel-Azim, Prof. Hatem Abd ElKader, Dr. Nermine Khalifa

Abstract Introduction: Gamification has recently gained popularity as a technology promoting the users psychological motivations towards a service, activity, product or a brand. Different design characteristics of the design elements have been described as motivating and supporting individual attitude and behaviour. However, scarcity in empirical evidence answering the people drive to use gamification in the marketing field still represents a gap in the literature. Aim: the present study aims at proposing a prototype of a gamified framework specially developed for testing the effect of gamification on brand engagement according to UX designs using different game elements. Materials & methods: this is a pilot study targeting customers of gamification website. The data was collected through evaluating the relationship between the user experience and the game elements and their effect on utilitarian and hedonic motivations. Holistic evaluation of the whole gameful experience and its influence on customer attitude in regard to more brand enhanced engagement was further assessed. Results: evidence of a positive relationship was statistically highly significant between the proposed framework and the studied variables, in conjunction with player personality as an important moderating factor. Conclusion: The results proved that customer attitude towards a brand can be affected during a gameful experience and will eventually result in positive active enhanced brand engagement.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 37-56 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2020.14.11.5


BCG Vaccine in Preventing COVID-19 Epidemic Had to be Reviewed: Correlation does not Imply causation

Hayder Abdul-Amir Maki Al-Hindy, Mazin Jaafar Mousa, Hayder Obayes Hashim

Abstract Background: During the last December 2019, a characteristic coronavirus was detected as an etiological agent for an epidemic of potential lethal unusual pneumonia. Miller's et al compared various nations with their severe acute respiratory syndrome-corona virus II (SARS-COV2) morbidity and mortality and found a significant positive correlation between the year when universal BCG vaccination policies were adopted and the country’s mortality rate. Objectives: an attempt to criticize Miller's opinion, shed a light on the impact of BCG from an immunological and clinical point of view, as well as discussing the old and recent role of BCG on immunity. Methods: The available data has been reviewed about the immunological effects of both BCG vaccine and ACE receptors and their correlations with SARS-COV2 infection. Results: A lot of points goes with and against Miller's proposal have been discussed. The correlation of BCG vaccine from immunological and clinical points of view to several disorders had been delibrated. The role of ACE receptors and ACE inhibitors in SARS-COV2 infection had been conferred. Conclusion: the correlation of the BCG vaccine with morbidity and mortality of SARS-COV2 does not imply causation. Additional systematic methodical researches and properly designed trials are desirable to describe this correlation, till the scientists can reach to final decisions

[ FULL TEXT PDF 58-63 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2020.14.11.6


Empirical Study: Measuring the Impact of International Finance on Economic Growth in the Egyptian Context

Amina Yacoub, Prof. Dr. Taha Kassem, Prof. Dr. Ali Abd Elwahab

Abstract Our aim of this study was measured the impact of different sources of international funding on economic growth in the Egyptian context based on the quantitative approach. It also aims to identify the relative importance of each source compared to other sources and to other variables that may affect the economic growth. The effect of different sources of international funding on economic growth is measured either the short or long term through this period 1980 to 2018. Therefore, the researcher will be able to figure out the suitable method for improving the performance of these sources, and choosing the optimum source of funding, which in turn will improve the economic growth in the future. This study will discuss the methodology that is adopted by the researcher to endorse the arguments of the study. It also sheds light on the research method that will be applied to test the validity and reliability of correction of the hypothesis through the quantitative method depending on the ARDL (autoregressive distributed Lag) co-integration. It is a technique used in determining the long run relationship between series with different order of integration. The re-parameterized result gives the short-run dynamics and long run relationship of the considered variables. Some of the deficiencies include: identifying the co-integrating vector(s) where there are multiple co-integrating relations; applicability when one co-integrating vector of different order exists.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 64-74 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2020.14.11.7


Spatial organization and land use in Tocantins at the beginning of the 21st century

Nilton Marques de Oliveira, Fernando Silva Lima, Erisvaldo de Oliveira Alves

Abstract This article analyzes the spatial organization and land use in the state of Tocantins, between 2006 and 2017, from the regional analysis. Location and specialization indicators were used with the area in hectares occupied in different uses as a variable, according to the Agricultural Census. The results show that the spatial organization of land use in the state in the eastern part has been developing integration between nature and local populations. In the western part, agribusiness (livestock) is expanding. The soybean crop has emerged as an export-based product from Tocantins, and has steadily grown in the planted and harvested areas. The other comparisons including the next agricultural censuses will be able to trace the definitive trend of land use. Especially because, the regional analysis showed a tendency towards redistribution and restructuring that is not consolidated.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 75-85 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2020.14.11.8


Estimation of antioxidants activity and capacity to capture free radical using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay

Khalid A. Alsaleem, Mohamed Salem Elfaruk and Ahmed R. A. Hammam

Abstract Background: Antioxidants are food additives with various capacities commonly utilized to reduce free radical and delay food oxidation. Antioxidants within the food materials provide a degree of protection against oxidation and the presence of free radicals. It can emerge in the food natural, added during formulations, or created during food processing. Objective: This study's objective was to evaluate the capacity of various concentrations of ascorbic acid, gallic acid, and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) using The 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and a spectrophotometric at an absorbance of 510 nm. Results: The Effective concentration (EC50) of ascorbic acid, gallic acid, and BHT was 136.46 ± 15.22, 41.27 ± 1.27, and 0.239 ± 0.08 μM, respectively. The remained of DPPH value was decreased by increasing the concentration of antioxidants. The remains of DPPH for the highest concentrations of ascorbic acid, gallic acid, and BHT were 9.5, 8.7, and 21.09 %, respectively. The antioxidants significantly decreased (p < 0.05) the free radical, with gallic acid having higher efficiency followed by ascorbic acid and BHT. Conclusion: Antioxidants' capacity is a crucial factor in avoiding per-oxidant actions that resulted from a high concentration of antioxidants. The DPPH assay can be used to estimate antioxidants' activity by measuring the remained of DPPH assay using a spectrophotometric measurement. This work's outcome can be applied as reference standards to match and estimate the properties of novel antioxidants.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 86-93 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2020.14.11.9