Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences

October 2020


The Challenges of Using Students Academic Performances Data and Their Solutions

Keya Rani Das, Bishnu Kumar Adhikary, Provash Kumar Karmokar

Abstract Background: In educational statistics, quantitative data is getting popular in the world. Although the use of such a data set is increasing day by day in the educational statistics area in Bangladesh, the use of appropriate statistical methodology is strongly recommended. Objectives: Among the various statistical techniques, somewhat few of them are using correlation and regression analysis from the educational perspective without following the proper methodologies which have been producing misleading output. The current research focuses on such a basic part of the analysis for the proposed educational data set. Specifically, regression analysis uses to check the percentage of variation in the dependent variable explained by variation in the independent variables based on the coefficient of determination (R2). But R2 value does not give always a good measure due to the violation of different assumptions. As such R2 may mislead to judge the influence of independent variables on the dependent variable as a measure. Therefore, in this study, the authors have been intended to focus on the major challenges and its remedies in educational data research from statistical viewpoints. Results: Simple correlation and regression method have used for the authors’ surveyed data following proper assumptions and extreme observations have identified by examining the plot of Cook’s distance against centered leverage value. Data analysis completed by IBM SPSS 21.0. The R2 value computed as 0.792 indicating that there is about 79.2% of total variation explained by the regression line but VIF for estimated coefficient b3 is 10.2. Together with the non-normal pattern of probability plot outlying observations numbered 11, 12, and 35 have identified by scattered diagram between Cook’s distance and centered leverage values. The identified extreme observations have removed from the data set and have reexamined. Finally, all sorts of assumptions together with the normality of errors have been confirmed by the reduced data set. Conclusion: The practitioners need to be careful about the outlying observation involved with their educational data sets so that statistical methodologies would not be applied inappropriately.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-7 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2020.14.10.1


Optimum spacing of columns in a tubular frame for the design of tall buildings

Manazir Hussain, Laiq Hussain, Ataullah Maher, and Safdar Abbas Zaidi

Abstract For the design of tubular structures, various researches have been inducted in past but still, there is no regulation made for providing the column spacing in the tube frame. This paper presents the comparison of four different types of a tubular structural frame with different spacing of columns in their periphery. The main objective of the research is to find an optimum spacing of columns in a tube frame without compromising the structural response. The columns are assigned at 7.5ft, 10ft, 15ft, and 30ft respectively in four tubular structures with the building height of 600 ft. Here the flat plate system has been used and its effect on the cost of the structure is observed. A simple linear static analysis is carried out and seismic loading has been applied in each model and their base shear and drifts were optimized by changing the column cross-section to get minimum steel ratio. Based on their total cost consumption and drift control, the most optimum and economical framing system has been concluded and a tube frame with 10 ft column spacing is recommended as the most suitable option for a symmetrical high-rise structure. Furthermore, these tubes were also get compared with a conventional moment resisting frame system, and all the analyzed tube frames are found to be more economical than a moment-resisting frame.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 8-16 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2020.14.10.2


Lactation induction protocol changes the milk composition and the biochemical profile of Holstein cows

Rafaela de Moraes Knupp, Camila Schubert Reis, Márcia Aparecida Andreazzi, Fábio Luiz Bim Cavalieri, Isabele Picada Emanuelli, Vinicius Eduardo Gargaro Silva, José Maurício Gonçalves dos Santos

Abstract Dairy cattle farming has made progress with improvements in its herds, combined with genetics, nutrition, management, health and the use of techniques that allow to increase production, as is the case with lactation induction protocols. However, due to the use of a wide variety of drugs, it’s use can alter the composition of milk and the biochemical profile of animals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the composition of milk and the biochemical profile of Holstein cows submitted to a lactation induction protocol. Milk and blood samples were collected from five cows submitted to the lactation induction protocol. In the milk samples, the percentage of fat, protein, lactose and somatic cell count were analyzed and in the blood, the levels of the enzymes alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, total proteins, albumin, creatinine and urea were analyzed. There was a significant reduction in the levels of protein and lactose in milk (p<0.05), however, even with the reduction, the values were within the required parameters. Despite not showing a significant effect, values of aspartate aminotransferase were observed much higher than the reference values for the species, indicating impaired liver function. The use of the lactation induction protocol reduced the levels of protein and lactose in milk samples obtained between the 21st and the 30th days after the beginning of the protocol, however, even with the reduction, the values were presented, on the 30th day, within the required parameters. There were no differences between the levels of ALT, total proteins, albumin, urea and creatinine in the blood samples analyzed at the beginning and at the end of the induction protocol, however, the enzyme levels AST, were higher than the reference values for the species at D21, suggesting impaired liver function. Lactation induction is an important tool for milk producers, but more research must be conducted in order to guarantee the quantity and quality of milk produced in line with the health of the animals.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 17-21 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2020.14.10.1


Modelling and Simulation of a Wastewater Treatment System – Case Study: The 10th of Ramadan City, Egypt

Mohamed Hassan, Mohamed Ayoub, Ahmed El-Morsy, Hafez Afify

Abstract The 10th of Ramadan City suffers from poor management of the wastewater treatment process due to the lack of the necessary infrastructure. The WWTP receives domestic wastewater, and some contribution from the industrial buildings (Factories of shoes, clothes, furniture, consumer electronics, and household electrical appliances) ranged from 90,000 m3/day to 130,000 m3/day. From this, the need arose to study the extent to which industrial wastewater was affected by the treatment processes. Several equations were prepared by the IWA Task Group to try to understand the processes that take place during biological treatment in what is now known as activated sludge models (ASM). In the application of one of these models, the Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1) was used to simulate the 10th of Ramadan WWTP in Egypt via computer-supported programs (STOAT 5.0 software) to describe the performance of the 10th of Ramadan WWTP in its current state. The kinetic and stoichiometric parameters were selected to be calibrated, which changed because of the novel variation in temperature within the plant and because of the presence of the industrial wastewater. This study concluded a discrepancy between the results and field samples, and the results obtained from the simulation model ranging from 13% to 20% for the variables (COD, TSS, TVSS, and DO). This indicates a discrepancy in the actual performance of the 10th of Ramadan WWTP from its ideal condition. This is likely due to some contributions from industrial facilities to the upcoming disposal of the plant.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 22-34 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2020.14.10.4


Aluminium corrosion inhibition in 1M HCl by nicotinamide: gravimetric, thermodynamic, kinetic and QSPR studies

Mamadou Yeo, Victorien Kouakou, Mougo André Tigori, Paulin Marius Niamien, Albert Trokourey

Abstract Background: Corrosion inhibitors are chemical compounds used in small quantities in liquid or gas to decrease the corrosion rate of a material. A perusal of literature shows that organic compounds have often been tested as corrosion inhibitors due to their capacity to reduce this phenomenon. Objective: This work stands for the study of Nicotinamide (NTA) behaviour as an aluminium corrosion inhibitor in 1M HCl. Methods: The experimental studies were carried out by gravimetry and the obtained results gave access to the corrosion rate and the inhibition efficiency. DFT calculations performed using Gaussian 09 allowed determining the molecular parameters. QSPR studies allowed the establishment of mathematical formulas to correlate corrosion inhibition with molecular parameters. Results: The obtained results show that the inhibition efficiency increases with increasing concentration in (NTA) but decreases when temperature increases. The molecule adsorbs on the aluminium surface according to the modified Langmuir isotherm known as Villamil isotherm. Adsorption and activation thermodynamic functions were determined. The metal dissolution kinetic law was established. The global molecular descriptors such as the frontier energies (EHOMO, ELUMO), the energy gap (ΔE), the dipole moment (μ), the chemical potential (μP), the chemical hardness (η) and the global nucleophilicity (ω) were obtained. The local descriptors known as Fukui functions ( ), dual descriptors ( ) and (Δ ) were also determined. Mathematical relations correlate well the molecular descriptors with the corrosion inhibition efficiency.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 35-47 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2020.14.10.5