Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences

October 2021


The Mass-Dependent Effective Interactions Applied To Nuclear Reactions

Isaiah Ochala1, Joseph O. Fiase, Vivian O. Obaje, Virginia I. Sule

ABSTRACT: Two new mass-dependent M3Y-type effective interactions derived on the basis of the lowest order constrained variational (LOCV) approach are applied to nuclear reactions in this paper. These effective interactions were derived from nuclear systems with mass numbers A = 16 and 24 and called the B3Y-Fetal and B’3Y-Fetal respectively. Principally, nuclear reaction is used in this work as a second level of viability test to determine the effect of mass dependence on the form and character of the effective interactions. The real folded potentials associated with the B3Y-Fetal and B’3Y-Fetal have been computed within the framework of double folding model, with the former as the standard for comparison. Accordingly, the real folded potential derived from the B’3Y-Fetal in its DDM3Y1 density-dependent version (DDB’3Y1-Fetal potential) computed within the framework of the double folding model at the incident energies of 160, 480, 960 and 1440 MeV at smaller inter-nuclear distances has been found to be -345, -289, -212 and -155 MeV, respectively, in magnitude in comparison with -352, -292, -217 and -156 MeV respectively obtained with the DDB3Y1-Fetal real folded potential at the same incident energies, showing the B3Y-Fetal to be stronger at smaller inter-nuclear distances than the B’3Y-Fetal effective interaction. The results obtained in this work have also shown the B’3Y-Fetal-based folded potential to have attractive direct and exchange components which combine to produce an attractive total real folded potential, whereas the real folded potential derived from the B3Y-Fetal effective interaction has a repulsive direct component, which combines with a large attractive exchange component to form an attractive total real folded potential. Essentially, this shows that the effect of mass dependence on the form and character of the B3Y-Fetal and B’3Y-Fetal lies in the direct components of their optical potentials.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 1-12 ] DOI: 10.22587/ajbas.2021.15.10.1


Numerical Solution of Fractional Integro-Differential Equation using Galerkin Method with Mamadu-Njoseh Polynomials

Mamadu Ebimene James, Ojarikre Ify Henrietta, Njoseh Ignatius Nkonyeasua

ABSTRACT: This paper aims to employ the Mamadu-Njoseh Orthogonal Polynomial as a trial function through the Galerkin method to seek the approximate solution of fractional integro-differential equations. The Galerkin method is the weak finite element method formulation that effectively handles the residual equation. We have considered an approximate formulation in the Caputo sense in terms of the Mamadu-Njoseh polynomials. We have also presented our numerical evidences graphically showing the comparison of solutions between the analytic and approximate. The results revealed that the numerical procedure converges absolutely even at N=3 to the exact solution. It was also observed that the use of Mamadu-Njoseh orthogonal Polynomial as a basis function via the Galerkin method solved the fractional integro-differential equation effectively and reliably as compared with other methods in literature. All computational frameworks are implemented by MAPLE 18 software.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 13-19 ] 10.22587/ajbas.2021.15.10.2


Assessment of children oral health quality in institutional care situation

Cristhiane Olívia Ferreira Do Amaral, Camila Teixeira Do Nascimento, Lidiane Da Silva Granjeiro, Mariana Olívia Ferreira Do Amaral, Fabiana Gouveia Straioto

ABSTRACT: Background: The hypothesis was that institutionalized children who live in shelters/ orphanages, without parental care, unstable family situation, psychological disorders, low socioeconomic status and with limited access to oral health care can improve the risk of oral diseases. Objectives: The aim of study evaluated the quality of oral health of children in a situation of institutional care (shelter), compared with the oral health condition of children who live with their family under parental care in a stable family situation. Methods: This study was descriptive, observational, cross-sectional and case-control study. Thirty- eight 38 patients of aged 0 to 12 years were analyzed. They were divided into two groups: 19 institutionalized children (Study Group - SG) and 19 children in parental care (Control Group - CG). Data were collected about the systemic and drug conditions and aspects of oral health. The index used to assess the oral health of the patients were: Visible Plaque Index (VPI), Gingival Health Condition Index (GHCI), ICDAS Index, Invasive Dental Treatment Need Index (ITNI). The data obtained were tabulated and the descriptive statistics analysis was calculated, including as summary measures in absolute number and percentage. The results obtained were submitted to statistical analysis using the chi-square test with a significance level of 5%. Results: The systemic diseases in the EG were reported in 37% and 11% in the CG. The use of medications was reported in 32% of participantes of the EG. The EG group presents harmful habits in a higher percentage (53%) compared to the CG. The results of VPI, GHCI, ICDAS, ITNI, GE had the highest percentage in GE. Conclusion: Children in a situation of institutional care regardless of the oral health condition with worse results in the index surveyed in relation to children with parental care in a stable family situation. These results emphasizing the needs for implementation of preventive health programs in shelters, in order to minimally reduce the impact of absence from the family. Additionally, the use of controlled medications and medical monitoring were higher in the group of institutionalized children.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 20-26 ] 10.22587/ajbas.2021.15.10.3